Presentation on theme: "Review Questions: Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired? “Fort S_ _ _ _ _ _ _R” What advantages did the South have at the outset of war? What."— Presentation transcript:
Review Questions: Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired? “Fort S_ _ _ _ _ _ _R” What advantages did the South have at the outset of war? What advantages did the North have at the outset of war?
CIVIL WAR ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES NORTH ADVANTAGES Larger population More industry More resources Better banking system More railroad mileage Abraham Lincoln More ships DISADVANTAGES Faced hostile people Southern territory unfamiliar
CIVIL WAR ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES SOUTH ADVANTAGES Strong popular support Familiar territory Superior military leadership DISADVANTAGES Smaller population Few factories Less food production Fewer railroad miles Fewer ships Jefferson Davis Belief in states’ rights
Strategies Anaconda Plan King Cotton South used a defensive war. Try to make allies with other countries (Britain and France) Europe needs cotton South tries force them to help by controlling cotton trade. Use a Blockade to cut off the south. Stops supplies and reinforcements Control the Mississippi to cut the south in half But the plan takes a lot of time Lincoln does not want to wait and order the invasion of Virginia.
CIVIL WAR STRATEGIES NORTH The Anaconda Plan 1.Blockade the South 2.Split the Confederacy by gaining control of the Mississippi River 3.Capture Richmond, the Confederate capital
CIVIL WAR STRATEGIES SOUTH WIN RECOGNITION AS AN INDEPENDENT NATION 1.Capture Washington, D.C. 2.Seize central Pennsylvania 3.Defend homeland until North tired of fighting 4.Get Britain to pressure North to end blockade to restore cotton supplies
AIM: American Civil War Battles – Part 1
1 st Battle of Bull Run Who Union: General Irvin McDowell Confederate: Thomas J. Jackson aka: “Stonewall Jackson” When/Where When: July 21, 1861 Where: Bull Run (Manasses) What Total Dead: 4,700 Lincoln orders 30,000 inexperienced soldiers towards Richmond Met inexperienced Confederate Army Battle was close (back & forth) Picnickers in nice clothes watched battle from afar – held up Union retreat Who Won? Confederacy: “Jackson standing like a Stonewall” So What? (Results) Union troops retreat to DC Confederate troops too tired to attack DC Confederate morale is UP Reality check: Maybe war is not going to be easy!!!
General George McClellan Lincoln Appoints McClellan trains “Army of the Potomac”
Fort Henry & Fort Donelson Who Union: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate: ~ not important~ (Gen Lloyd Tilghman/John B. Floyd) When/Where When: Feb : Henry Where: Tennessee Feb 11-16, 1862: Donelson What Total Dead: 17,517 Part of Anaconda Plan o Divide Mississippi 11 Days: Captured 2 Confederate Forts Who Won? Union So What? (Results) Grant establishes reputation as a solid General – Known as “ Unconditional Surrender Grant” Begins to divide Confederacy
Shiloh Who Union: Ulysses S. Grant/Don Carlos Buell Confederate: Albert S. Johnston/Pgt. Beauregard When/Where When: April 6-7, 1862 Where: Tennessee What Total Dead: 23,746 Grant’s troops church near Shiloh, TN o Not prepared for battle o Not enough patrol Confederate troops surprise attack Grant reorganizes troops & defeats Confederacy Who Won? Union So What? (Results) Strategic Lesson: importance of scouts & fortifications Emphasized the bloodiness of war o ¼ of the 100,000 who fought died, wounded or were captured
New Orleans Who Union: David Farragut (60 years old) Confederate: ~ not important~ (Mansfield Lovell) When/Where When: April 25 – May 1, 1862 Where: New Orleans, LA What Total Dead: 0 Union Fleet: 40 Ships approach New Orleans – CRUCIAL PORT Took over the 2 Confederate Ships Who Won? Union So What? (Results) Blockading Ports: esp. this crucial port Can split Confederacy from North/South Mississippi
The Generals George McClellan “Army of the Potomac” Excellent Admin. Popular with Troops Extremely Cautious Five Months of Training Army Insisted on more men – criticized “All quiet on the Potomac” Lincoln: “Borrow McClellan’s army is the general himself was not going to use it” Robert E. Lee Modest man Thinks outside the box Opposed secession & freed slaves Lincoln had asked for him to lead the Union Army Supported Virginia (his home state)
Seven Day’s Battles Who Union: George McClellan Confederate: Robert E. Lee When/Where When: June 25 – July 1, 1862 Where: Virginia What Total Dead: 37,957 6 battles in 7 days Lee’s attempt to save Richmond (Confederate Capital) o Used unorthodox method to move McClellan from Richmond Who Won? Confederate (although they lost more men) So What? (Results) McClellan’s “Army of the Potomac” pushed back
Antietam Who Union: George McClellan Confederate: Robert E. Lee When/Where When: Sept. 17, 1862 Where: Sharpsburg, Maryland What Total Dead: 23,100-26,000 1 st battle on Northern soil McClellan’s troops take on Lee’s Army McClellan was aggressive o BUT didn’t chase Lee’s troops when they retreated! Who Won? Inconclusive (Strategically Union victory) So What? (Results) BLOODIEST SINGLE DAY BATTLE in American History ¼ of Lee’s Army lost McClellan is fired by Lincoln in November 1862 for having “the Slows”
Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville, VA Who Union: Burnside then Hooker Confederate: Lee/ Jackson When/Where When: December 1862/May 1863 Where: Virginia What Total Dead: F-burg: 17,975 C-ville: 29,800 Burnside attacks CSA stronghold & Fredericksburg At Chancellorsville, VA, CSA is outnumbered – Lee’s strategies save the day! o Union lost o Stonewall Jackson shot by “friendly fire” when returning from patrol o Lost left arm o Dies of pneumonia few days later Who Won? 2 Confederate Victories So What? (Results) Confederate wins – begins 1863 on a good note! Stonewall Jackson Chancellorsville o Replaced by James Longstreet
CSA Feeling Good! Lee decides to venture into Union territory – Pennsylvania Why do that?!? – Supplies – Get USA to move troops from Vicksburg on Miss River – CSA victory in the north will upset politics in the north
[July 1-3, 1863] Gettysburg Overview Small PA town, 3 day battle, TURNING POINT IN WAR, 94 o & humid, CSA looking for shoes Day 1 Confederates looking for shoes go into PA Gets into a fight w/Union cavalry – Fighting attracts additional troops in this unlikely town of Gettysburg Confederates took town, Union retreated to a HILL
[July 1-3, 1863] Gettysburg Day 2 90,000 Yankees/ 75,000 Confederates Little Round Top abandoned by mistake – Key position Lee orders troops to Little Round Top (offensive strategy) 20th Maine troops went to defend – Under command of Chamberlain 20th Maine & Chamberlain: defend hill successfully
[July 1-3, 1863] Gettysburg Day 3 Lee commits Confederate troops to one final attack to center of Union line – Longstreet disagrees Guns quieted in afternoon – Lee thought Union was weakened - orders CHARGE! Pickett’s Charge: CSA loses 75% of men
[July 1-3, 1863] Gettysburg So What? Results Lee retreats to VA – Army/CSA never recovers Lee deterred from going on offensive again Each side loses 30% of men Union: 23,000/CSA:28,000
Review How many days was Gettysburg fought for? Who was the General at Gettysburg? Why did the CSA forces decide to head into PA? What did Lee expect would happen if they scored a win in the North?
Siege of Vicksburg - What Army of the Potomac in PA – Won Gettysburg Grant & forces want to gain complete control of the Miss. River – Vicksburg was one of the 2 CSA forts preventing control over the Miss. River – Strategic location Grierson & cavalry – Weakened RR & transport – Distract rebels so infantry can get to Vicksburg
Siege of Vicksburg - What Weakened defenses – bombarded fort with gun/cannon fire Starve out inhabitants – ate mules, dogs, rats Siege: May (late) – July 6 WEEKS! July 3rd (same day as Pickett’s Charge) - Terms of surrender offered City Fell – July 4th
Siege of Vicksburg – Results A few days later last CSA holdout fell – CSA officially split in 2!
Outside the lines November 19, Gettysburg Address Ceremony to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg, where Lincoln was asked to add a few remarks. Lincoln follows a two-hour speech with his two minute speech – Unifies nation! Morale in CSA went down as war went on – Why? March 1864 – Lincoln appoints U.S. Grant as commander of all Union armies
Outside the lines Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman commander of military division of Mississippi Grant & Sherman’s commitment to WAR – TOTAL WAR Essential to fight South’s CIVILIAN population Why? Civilians produced weapons, grew food and transported goods Civilians & their willingness to fight keeps battle going
The Virginia Campaign - What From Wilderness to Petersburg, Grant keeps pushing Lee back Not all battles won by Union – CSA lost 35,000 men (COULD NOT REPLACE) – USA lost 65,000 men (COULD REPLACE) Grant is called a “butcher”
The Virginia Campaign - Results Union pushed back Confederate forces to south Virginia Killed men who the CSA could not replace
Sherman’s March to the Sea - WHAT Sept 1864 – Sherman takes Atlanta “Burning of Atlanta” Abandons supply Atlanta - creates line of destruction to the Sea Lived off land as they went Destroyed land as they went; freed approx 25,000 slaves who eagerly joined Union army Ultimate goal – SOUTH CAROLINA – Why?
Sherman’s March to the Sea – So What? – Results! Example of TOTAL WAR (not sparing civilians & land – civilians are helping the war w/ food & weapons production, etc. Continued to S.C. capital – Columbia! – Center of railroads, printing presses Turns north - help Grant fight Lee
Sherman’s March to the Sea November 15-December 20, 1864 General William Tecumseh Sherman, Union troops push to Atlanta Captures Atlanta (September 1864), marches to sea, wages total war Union troops tear up rail lines, destroy crops, burn and loot towns Sherman’s success helps Lincoln win re-election Sherman captures Savannah As the Union army moved through the South, they would destroy train tracks by heating up the rails and bending them into a bow which became known as “Sherman’s Neckties”
Sherman’s March to the Sea
CW Battles - Review Questions What was the first battle of the Civil War? What was a major result of this battle? What famous CSA general gained his nickname at this battle? Who did Lincoln hire to lead the Union forces after the first battle?
CW Battles - Review Questions In the Western theatre of war, Grant had a huge victory in Feb 1862 – where did this victory take place? Why was this significant? What nickname did Grant earn for being a stubborn negotiator? 1 month later, Grant and his forces were surprised – Where? What was Grant miraculously able to do? Why was this battle significant?
CW Battles - Review Questions What was the 3 part strategy used by the Union forces? What key Confederate port was needed to execute this strategy? Who was appointed leader of the Confederate forces? How was the leader of the Confederate forces able to save Richmond in the Summer of 1862?
CW Battles - Review Questions What was the first battle on Northern Soil? What is the significance of this battle? What strategic mistake did McClellan make during this battle?
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation – Free slaves in rebel territories only – Military order by Commander-in-Chief – Effective Jan. 1, 1863 Lincoln’s Logic 1.Rebels use slave labor 2.Northern morale was low 3.End possibility of England/France joining South
Reactions to the Proclamation Symbolic value - gives war high moral purpose Free blacks fight – 160,000 – turns tide of war Northern Dems claim: will prolong war – WHY? – Confederacy: more determined to preserve way of life – Alienation! Compromise no longer possible - one side must defeat the other
A Revolution in Warfare Ironclads New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, Farragut Ironclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burning March 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fight to a draw New Weapons Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets Minié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines are used Fighting from trenches, barricades new advantage in infantry attacks
Section 1 The Civil War Begins The secession of Southern states cause the North and the South to take up arms. NEXT
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter The Confederacy Takes Control Confederate soldiers take over government, military installations Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter The Civil War Begins 1 SECTION NEXT Continued... Lincoln’s Dilemma Reinforcing fort by force would lead rest of slave states to secede Evacuating fort would legitimize Confederacy, endanger Union
First Shots Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends food For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war - fires on Sumter April 12, SECTION NEXT continued Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter Virginia Secedes Fall of Fort Sumter unites North; volunteers rush to enlist Virginia unwilling to fight South; secedes from Union - antislavery western counties secede from VA Three more states secede; border states remain in Union Image Map
Americans Expect a Short War Union and Confederate Strategies Union advantages: soldiers, factories, food, railroads Confederate advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivation Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South - blockade Southern ports - divide Confederacy in two in west - capture Richmond, Confederate capital Confederate strategy: defense, invade North if opportunity arises 1 SECTION NEXT Bull Run Bull Run—first battle, near Washington; Confederate victory Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle Chart
Union Armies in the West Protecting Washington, D.C. After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiers Appoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the Potomac 1 SECTION NEXT Continued... Forts Henry and Donelson General Ulysses S. Grant—brave, tough, decisive commander in West Feb. 1862, Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson Image
continued Union Armies in the West Shiloh March1862, Confederate troops surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh Grant counterattacks; Confederates retreat; thousands dead, wounded Shiloh teaches preparation needed, Confederacy vulnerable in West 1 SECTION NEXT Farragut on the Lower Mississippi David G. Farragut commands fleet that takes New Orleans, April takes Baton Rouge, Natchez Interactive
A Revolution in Warfare Ironclads New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, Farragut Ironclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burning March 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fight to a draw 1 SECTION NEXT New Weapons Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets Minié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines are used Fighting from trenches, barricades new advantage in infantry attacks Image
The War for the Capitals “On to Richmond” McClellan waits to attack Richmond; drills troops for 5 months Spring 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command of Southern army Lee, McClellan fight Seven Days’ Battle; Union leaves Richmond area 1 SECTION NEXT Antietam Lee wins Second Battle of Bull Run; marches into Maryland Lee, McClellan clash at Antietam—bloodiest single-day battle Battle a standoff; Confederates retreat; McClellan does not pursue - Lincoln fires McClellan Interactive
Section 2 The Politics of War By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war. NEXT
Britain Remains Neutral Britain Pursues Its Own Interests Britain has cotton inventory, new sources; does not need South Needs Northern wheat, corn; chooses neutrality The Politics of War 2 SECTION NEXT The Trent Affair Confederate diplomats travel on Trent to get British, French support U.S. Navy arrests them; Lincoln frees them, averts war with Britain
Proclaiming Emancipation Lincoln’s View of Slavery Federal government has no power to abolish slavery where it exists Lincoln decides army can emancipate slaves who labor for Confederacy Emancipation discourages Britain from supporting the South 2 SECTION NEXT Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation—issued by Lincoln in 1863: - frees slaves behind Confederate lines - does not apply to areas occupied by Union or slave states in Union Continued...
continued Proclaiming Emancipation Reactions to the Proclamation Proclamation has symbolic value, gives war high moral purpose Free blacks welcome ability to fight against slavery Northern Democrats claim will antagonize South, prolong war Confederacy becomes more determined to preserve way of life Compromise no longer possible; one side must defeat the other 2 SECTION NEXT
Both Sides Face Political Problems Dealing with Dissent Neither side completely unified; both sides face divided loyalties Lincoln suspends habeas corpus: - order to bring accused to court, name charges Seizes telegraph offices so cannot be used for subversion Copperheads—Northern Democrats advocating peace—among arrested Davis denounces Lincoln, then suspends habeas corpus in South Lincoln expands presidential powers, sets precedent 2 SECTION NEXT Continued... Image
Conscription Casualties, desertions lead to conscription—draft to serve in army Both armies allow draftees to hire substitutes to serve for them Planters with more than 20 slaves exempted 90% eligible Southerners serve; 92% Northern soldiers volunteer continued Both Sides Face Political Problems 2 SECTION NEXT Draft Riots White workers fear Southern blacks will come North, compete for jobs Angry at having to free slaves, mobs rampage through New York City