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The Civil War Begins! Or, Let’s Get This Party STARTED! Chapter 11.1 and 11.2.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Begins! Or, Let’s Get This Party STARTED! Chapter 11.1 and 11.2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War Begins! Or, Let’s Get This Party STARTED! Chapter 11.1 and 11.2

2 Fort Sumter Post-secession, South takes most Federal (Union) outposts in their territory – Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor is last significant holdout ◦ Lincoln doesn’t want to send in navy to reinforce – why? ◦ Also can’t just give the fort up – why? ◦ Jefferson Davis bombards the fort, which eventually surrenders

3 Comparison North has large advantages in industrial production, military-age population, military production, food production South has Cotton income, great generals, possibly a “better” military, and an advantage in motivation – defending their way of life

4 Strategies North – Anaconda Plan ◦ Blockade Southern ports – limit Cotton income, ability to import manufactured goods ◦ Take the Mississippi and split the Confederacy in two ◦ Capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, VA South ◦ DEFENSE! – of land, economy, way of life, etc.

5 Bull Run/Manassas First major bloodshed Back and forth battle, but stalwart Confederate defense plus reinforcements = Confederate VICTORY! ◦ Originates nickname Stonewall Jackson Union retreats to Washington, Confederates too disorganized and exhausted to follow Lincoln calls for 1,000,000 new enlistments

6 Grant and Farragut in the West Ulysses S. Grant leads Union in Western campaign ◦ Takes two forts (Ft Henry and Ft Donelson) on Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers Battle at Shiloh (near Mississippi border) ◦ Confederate surprise Union troops, but good Generalling by Grant and a swift counterattack secure a draw Union fleet under David Farragut starts push up Mississippi River to try to complete the division of South

7 Capturing Richmond? Blockade of ports is working, progress on Mississippi, but phase 3 of Anaconda is not going so hot McClellan (Union) very slow to act, forced into retreat by Robert E. Lee ◦ Confederates had less soldiers and suffered higher casualties, but McClellan lost his nerve Lee makes move toward Washington (why is Washington so vulnerable?)

8 Antietam McClellan catches a break ◦ Finds a copy of Lee’s orders – learns he and Stonewall Jackson are separated Orders an attack on Lee near a creek named Antietam ◦ Bloodiest single day in American history!  more than 20,000 casualties (~3,650 killed) Battle essentially a standoff, but McClellan doesn’t pursue the battered Confederate retreat Soon fired by Lincoln

9 Political Issues Emancipation Proclamation ◦ Slaves in rebelling lands are made free (as soon as Union gets in to liberate them) ◦ Why not declare all slaves free? ◦ Also allows blacks to join Union army ◦ Confederacy more determined than ever – way of life more directly threatened than ever Suspension of Habeas Corpus ◦ Lincoln suspends right to have court determine if a person is jailed legally  Uses this power to jail dissenters, Southern sympathizers  Jefferson Davis initially denounces measure, but later does it himself

10 Issues 2: Electric Boogaloo Conscription – Draft ◦ South – 1862  Drafts all able-bodied men 18-35 (1864 changes to 17-50)  You could hire someone to take your place, also exempted planters who owned more than 20 slaves – “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” ◦ North – 1863  Drafts white men 20-45  Also allows people to employ substitutes or to buy their way out  Riots is NY – many poor white workers object to fighting a war to free people who might then take their jobs – wreck newspaper offices, homes of antislavery leaders, political offices  Also attack many African-Americans and well-dressed people (who looked like they could afford the $300 buyout

11 Summation Questions Find a page in a notebook that you can keep, not lose, and continue to periodically add to. Then answer the following: Why wouldn’t Lincoln reinforce Fort Sumter? In your opinion, what was the biggest advantage held by both the North and the South at the start of the war? Explain.

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