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The Civil War Begins. Guiding Questions for Unit  1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war?  2) How has the nation’s identity been forged.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Begins. Guiding Questions for Unit  1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war?  2) How has the nation’s identity been forged."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War Begins

2 Guiding Questions for Unit  1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war?  2) How has the nation’s identity been forged in part by the Civil War?

3 The Confederacy  Confederate States of America forms 2/4/1861  Confederate soldiers start taking Federal courthouses, post offices, banks, and forts in South  WHY?

4 Fort Sumter  One of only a few Federal forts remaining in South  Important? (See map & slide)  Confederacy demands that Union soldiers inside surrender  Union soldiers short on supplies and ammunition

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7 Lincoln’s Dilemma  Dilemma? His possible choices?  Choice #1: Send army into Charleston and reinforce the fort  Risk of this action?  Choice #2: Surrender of fort  Risk of this action?

8 Davis’ Options  Option #1: Do nothing  Risk?  Option #2: Attack/prevent food from being delivered (act of war)  Risk?

9 Lincoln’s Genius  Message to Davis that he wants to send in “food for hungry men”  Why genius?  Puts ball back in Davis’ court  Davis’ options?

10 War  Davis chooses war  4/12/1861 South bombards Fort Sumter  North Surrenders  No casualties  Lincoln calls for volunteers  they pour into enlistment offices

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12 Southern States take Sides  Upper South secedes after Lincoln’s call (VA, AK, TN, NC)  Creation of West Virginia  4 Remaining Slave States (Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri)

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17 North and South plans for victory  Northern Army: Army of the Potomac  Southern Army: Army of Northern Virginia

18 Union’s Battle Plan  Superior navy blockade ports  Why?  Men & boats go down Miss. R.  Why?  Capture capital at Richmond  Why?  Why called “Anaconda Plan”?

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20 Confederacy’ Battle Plan  Fight defensive war and attack North whenever possible  Pros?  Cons?

21 Bull Run  July 21, 1861  25 miles from D.C.  People watch as they picnic  Both sides inexperienced troops  “Stonewall” Jackson wins day  Union retreat through picnics  Victory to the Confederacy

22 Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

23 Battle of Bull Run  Loss causes Lincoln to:  Call on 1 million volunteers  Gen. George McClellan to lead army

24 Northern Retreat from Bull Run

25 Bull Run (continued)  What did the North realize by losing the 1 st major battle of the war?  Why did some in the South think the war was over after the battle?  What could Confederate soldiers have done after victory?  What impact did this battle have on the North?

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27 Ulysses S. Grant

28 Ulysses S. Grant (Western Theater)  Union general; very effective  “Unconditional Surrender”  Invades western Tenn. & 2 important Confed. forts on 2 important rivers; IMPORTANT?  Fort Henry-Tenn. River  Fort Donelson-Cumberland R.

29 Battle of Shiloh  March, 1862; Tenn. Church  Confederate surprise attack  Grant had no pickets, or scouts  First part of the battle won by the South  Grant reorganized and won the battle  25K killed, wounded, captured

30 Battle of Shiloh

31 What could be learned from Shiloh?

32 Mississippi River & New Orleans  Draw at Shiloh opens way to Miss. R. for Union; Battle plan?  David G. Farragut-Union Gen.  Leads fleet to mouth of Miss. R. and captures New Orleans  Why important victory for North?

33 Ironclads: Monitor vs. Merrimack  What are they?  Used to win at Forts Henry and Donelson  Strengths?  Draw but Union victory b/c South can not break Union blockade

34 Ironclads: Monitor vs. Merrimack

35 Revolutions in Warfare  Rifle: more accurate & greater rate of fire than musket  Minie Ball: soft lead bullet that is more deadly; WHY?  Early hand grenades & mines  How did inventions change the way battles were fought?

36 The War for the Capitals  McClellan (very cautious) finally tries to attack Richmond  He is met by Robert E. Lee  “thought outside of box”  Opposed to secession, but fought to protect VA; offered Union command  Lee, outnumbered & suffers more casualties, but wins; Union retreats

37 Robert E. Lee

38 Battle of Antietam  Lee marches toward D.C. & wins 2 nd Battle at Bull Run  Lee crosses into Union (MD)  Lucky find by Union soldier  McClellan finally attacks  9/17/1862, near small creek

39 Battle of Antietam (continued)  Bloodiest single day battle in U.S. history (26K causalities)  Lee pushed back but McClellan again too cautious and does not pursue back to VA  Lincoln fires McClellan afterward; Why?  He runs as Dem. in 1864 Election

40 Battle of Antietam (continued)


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