Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Begins. Guiding Questions for Unit 1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war? 2) How has the nation’s identity been forged."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War Begins
Guiding Questions for Unit 1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war? 2) How has the nation’s identity been forged in part by the Civil War?
The Confederacy Confederate States of America forms 2/4/1861 Confederate soldiers start taking Federal courthouses, post offices, banks, and forts in South WHY?
Fort Sumter One of only a few Federal forts remaining in South Important? (See map & slide) Confederacy demands that Union soldiers inside surrender Union soldiers short on supplies and ammunition
Lincoln’s Dilemma Dilemma? His possible choices? Choice #1: Send army into Charleston and reinforce the fort Risk of this action? Choice #2: Surrender of fort Risk of this action?
Davis’ Options Option #1: Do nothing Risk? Option #2: Attack/prevent food from being delivered (act of war) Risk?
Lincoln’s Genius Message to Davis that he wants to send in “food for hungry men” Why genius? Puts ball back in Davis’ court Davis’ options?
War Davis chooses war 4/12/1861 South bombards Fort Sumter North Surrenders No casualties Lincoln calls for volunteers they pour into enlistment offices
Southern States take Sides Upper South secedes after Lincoln’s call (VA, AK, TN, NC) Creation of West Virginia 4 Remaining Slave States (Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri)
North and South plans for victory Northern Army: Army of the Potomac Southern Army: Army of Northern Virginia
Union’s Battle Plan Superior navy blockade ports Why? Men & boats go down Miss. R. Why? Capture capital at Richmond Why? Why called “Anaconda Plan”?
Confederacy’ Battle Plan Fight defensive war and attack North whenever possible Pros? Cons?
Bull Run July 21, 1861 25 miles from D.C. People watch as they picnic Both sides inexperienced troops “Stonewall” Jackson wins day Union retreat through picnics Victory to the Confederacy
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
Battle of Bull Run Loss causes Lincoln to: Call on 1 million volunteers Gen. George McClellan to lead army
Northern Retreat from Bull Run
Bull Run (continued) What did the North realize by losing the 1 st major battle of the war? Why did some in the South think the war was over after the battle? What could Confederate soldiers have done after victory? What impact did this battle have on the North?
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant (Western Theater) Union general; very effective “Unconditional Surrender” Invades western Tenn. & 2 important Confed. forts on 2 important rivers; IMPORTANT? Fort Henry-Tenn. River Fort Donelson-Cumberland R.
Battle of Shiloh March, 1862; Tenn. Church Confederate surprise attack Grant had no pickets, or scouts First part of the battle won by the South Grant reorganized and won the battle 25K killed, wounded, captured
Battle of Shiloh
What could be learned from Shiloh?
Mississippi River & New Orleans Draw at Shiloh opens way to Miss. R. for Union; Battle plan? David G. Farragut-Union Gen. Leads fleet to mouth of Miss. R. and captures New Orleans Why important victory for North?
Ironclads: Monitor vs. Merrimack What are they? Used to win at Forts Henry and Donelson Strengths? Draw but Union victory b/c South can not break Union blockade
Ironclads: Monitor vs. Merrimack
Revolutions in Warfare Rifle: more accurate & greater rate of fire than musket Minie Ball: soft lead bullet that is more deadly; WHY? Early hand grenades & mines How did inventions change the way battles were fought?
The War for the Capitals McClellan (very cautious) finally tries to attack Richmond He is met by Robert E. Lee “thought outside of box” Opposed to secession, but fought to protect VA; offered Union command Lee, outnumbered & suffers more casualties, but wins; Union retreats
Robert E. Lee
Battle of Antietam Lee marches toward D.C. & wins 2 nd Battle at Bull Run Lee crosses into Union (MD) Lucky find by Union soldier McClellan finally attacks 9/17/1862, near small creek
Battle of Antietam (continued) Bloodiest single day battle in U.S. history (26K causalities) Lee pushed back but McClellan again too cautious and does not pursue back to VA Lincoln fires McClellan afterward; Why? He runs as Dem. in 1864 Election