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AS History: Tsarist Russia 1855 - 1917. Why was Russia Backwards? Political  Autocracy  No opposition/ other political parties  Nobles in control 

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Presentation on theme: "AS History: Tsarist Russia 1855 - 1917. Why was Russia Backwards? Political  Autocracy  No opposition/ other political parties  Nobles in control "— Presentation transcript:

1 AS History: Tsarist Russia 1855 - 1917

2 Why was Russia Backwards? Political  Autocracy  No opposition/ other political parties  Nobles in control  Secret police  Conscripted Army Economic  Harsh winter – affected farming  Backwards farming methods  Banking undeveloped  No consumer demand for products  Poor communications Social  50 million serfs – 82% of the population  800,000 industrial workers  No demand to develop  Social hierarchy  Mostly of Russian Orthodox religion  3500 people in 6 universities Other Factors  Climate – frozen lakes, hard to import and trade on  Size of Russia – Extremely hard due to the poor communications

3 Alexander II 1855-1881 OVERVIEW o Tsar liberator o Failed to provide long term solutions o Emancipation of the serfs 1861 - peasants were allowed to but land from redemption payments to the state for 49years o Established the zemstva; elected council, 40% voted by peasants o Extended primary and secondary education o Universities became autonomous and reduced class bias o Increased criticism of Tsarism - peasants became indebted and led to rise of populist revolutionary movements such as the People's Will o Zemztva led to a desire for democracy o Increased number of educated people o Provided the potential for an organised party - not established till 20th century o Assassinated 1881 by People's Will

4 Alexander II 1855-1881 KEY DATES 1855 - Alexander II becomes Tsar 1861 – Emancipation of serfs 1863 – What is to be done? Published 1870-3 – Railway Mania years 1877 – Political trials of the populists who had “gone to the people” March 1881 – Alexander II assassinated

5 Why did Alex Emancipate the Serfs? Moral + Intellectual  Nihilists- ?  Intelligentsia- wanted change  Reform amongst intellectuals began 1?55 which divided opinion on Russia becoming more western  They all suggested different methods Crimean War  Against Turkey – suffering a humiliating defeat.  Russia realised they had to develop and modernise  Had to get rid of conscription and serfdom  374,600 deaths in total Political  Social structure did nothing for the nobility  Nobles income fell and were still dependent on serfs Economic  Nobles forced to take out mortgages on previously owned estates  Population doubled in the first half of the century  Russia needed to catch up and reassert its power  Would lead to more productive peasants  Plans to build a great rail. Alex's own views  Would bring a more dynamic economy  Serfdom morally wrong – western view  In order for modernisation to happen serfs had to be emancipated  3 rd March 1861 emancipation signed and published RUSSIA NEEDED TO MODERNISE TO REMAIN A GREAT POWER AND BECOME MORE WESTERNISED – THIS COULD ONLY HAPPEN THROUGH EMANCIPATION SERFDOM HAD LEAD TO- o Prevention of labour market o No need to modernise methods o Crimean war exposing Russia's backwardness o Peasant revolts (there had been 1467 before 1800) o “Better to abolish from above, than have it forced upon us from below.” – Alex FOR THIS TO CHANGE SERFDOM HAD TO BE ABOLISHED

6 RUSSIA NEEDED TO MODERNISE TO REMAIN A GREAT POWER AND BECOME MORE WESTERNISED – THIS COULD ONLY HAPPEN THROUGH EMANCIPATION SERFDOM HAD LEAD TO- o Prevention of labour market o No need to modernise methods o Crimean war exposing Russia's backwardness o Peasant revolts (there had been 1467 before 1800) o “Better to abolish from above, than have it forced upon us from below.” – Alex FOR THIS TO CHANGE SERFDOM HAD TO BE ABOLISHED

7 How were the Serfs Emancipated? However? Peasants had to wait two years State peasants 5 years In return from the peasants?  Peasants to pay redemption payments for 49 years  These had a high - 6% interest  Payments often grater than land value  Had to stay within commune until all payments made. Feb 1861  Serfs Freed - 40 million A starting block for the peasants?  Peasants granted land and property  Rights to marry, travel and set up businesses Compensation?  To land owners that lost out  Compensation often much higher than the land that was taken was actually worth GainsLosses

8 What were the problems with Emancipation?  Russia remained backwards – ‘new type of slavery’  Peasants paid more tax – so high that they had to sell all their grain, leaving nothing for them to survive on  Peasants had less land – often infertile and scattered  Little changed – peasants still tied to land and Mir and still used traditional farming methods  Landlords paid off debts – did not invest in the economy  248 out of 543million roubles paid to land lords as compensation was used to pay off debts  Household serfs who had no agricultural skills had to find other employment which often wasn't very well paid or productive – only gained freedom and no land

9 What was the impact of Alexander II’s other reforms? Judicial Action Taken  Local courts set up  Made fairer system Positives  Equality established – more chance of a fair trial - juries  Less judges giving into black mail Negatives  Little chance of justice  No questioning  Everyone presumed guilty Military Action Taken  Lowered conscription to 6years (was 25)  Improved training  Humane discipline  More efficient Positives  Not forced to join  Military advanced Negatives  Serfs unable to get higher ranks  Higher classes dominated Education Action Taken  Funded educational institutions Positives  Schools open to all regardless of sex or class.  Aimed to help catch up with western modernised countries  Curriculum  Inspectors  More poor and women in unis Negatives  Radical an militant thinkers increased/ revolutionary ideas Local Gov. Action Taken  System of elected local councils  Electoral collages Positives  Zhemstva (filled voids from emancipation), had a range of powers to make improvements e.g. To roads Negatives  Votes – so nobility kept dominant  Democracy not achieved.  Short on money Economic Development Tsar tried to modernise Russia by: o Emancipation o Railways o Banks He acheieved: o 13,000 line of railway o Building blocks on the way to modernisation But failed at: o Modernising Russia as it still lagged behind western Russia o People not totally freed o Time scale – too slow

10 Economic Development Tsar tried to modernise Russia by: o Emancipation o Railways o Banks He acheieved: o 13,000 line of railway o Building blocks on the way to modernisation But failed at: o Modernising Russia as it still lagged behind western Russia o People not totally freed o Time scale – too slow

11 Why did his reforms come to an end?  Polish Revolt – He saw it as ingratitude and pointlessness to further reform  Personal life – Affair and death of son – retreated from political life  April 1866 – Assassination attempt  Criticisms – Slavophiles “gone too far” – westernises “not far enough”  Increased radical demands and revolutionary activity  More Conservative ministers appointed

12 What was the extent of the reaction up to 1881? Sentencing  Harsher sentences in jail or exile  Separate political trials Education  Increased censorship over universitys  Increased restrictions on entry requirements (prevent lower classes getting in) Press  Used to attack critics of government  Violence and opposition still grew  Alexander assassinated by the peoples will.

13 How significant was opposition to Tsarism up to 1881? Intellectuals like Herzen and Chernyshevsky (what is to be done?) were influential Less censorship meant new ideas new ideas (and criticisms) spread quickly  Marxism  Populism – made the government aware of the strong feelings – loss of authority and direction Alexander II’s reforms raised expectations  Discontent amongst higher classes – Nobles, landlords  Better to reform from above, than have a reform from below  Failure to fulfil expectations of reforms  Right win opposition Why did opposition grow from the 1960s? Students studied abroad and returned with new ideas

14 What type of radical opposition was there in the 1860s and 1870s? The peoples will  From land and liberty  Used direct violence –terrorism  Against gov. in attempt to spark revolution  Tsar had to be removed  Did not use real names – Okrana  37 members + Mikhailov - leader  Before the assassination the group had made 8 attempts to kill him.  Attempts mostly failed – for example blowing up the wrong train  Big threat to Tsardom  Resulted in political trials – 5 hanged, 2 executed, 1 life imprisonment, 1 reduced to 20 yrs  Two break off groups Younger peoples will + the other; Terrorism Section (killed Alex III) Black partition  Tried to persuade peasants to revolt  Propaganda without having to use violence Populism  Students  Persuade peasants to revolt  “going to the people”- dressed up  3000 went to the countryside  Win over with socialists ideas  But peasants were ignorant and ignored them  Land and liberty emerged from this – more radical and better organised -violence

15 Why did terrorism fail to destroy Tsarism? Conservatives continued to support the Tsar rather than radicals The terrorists failed to gain enough support Terrorists offered no alternative form of government

16 Alexander III 1881-1894 OVERVIEW o Period of successful repression o Crushed revolutionaries in the short term o Economic change from Witte and the great spurt o Utilised emergency powers o Created the Okhrana o Increased censorship o Created land captains o Increased government interference in laws o Restricted the zemstva and education o Period of Russification o Supported industrialisation - 8% increase per anum o Exploited agriculture as a form of income from exports o Created stability for autocracy o He predicted 1905 revolution from the growth of urban and rural unrest

17 Alexander III 1881-1894 KEY DATES March 1881 – Alexander III becomes Tsar 1885 – Peasant land banks 1891-2 – Russia's worst famine of the 19 th century 1892 – Witte takes over from Vyshnegradsky 1894 – Nicholas becomes Tsar

18 Vyshenegradsky and Witte Vyshenegradsky  Finance minister 1887- 1892  Trans Siberian rail and tariffs  Stronger gov interference  Increased tax (on peasants) and pushed for exportation of goods  Balanced budget deficit  1891-1892 famine Witte  Finance minister – 1893  Highly influential – extensive industrialisation  Oversaw construction of railway  Economic growth  Foreign investments encouraged  Gold standard  Committed to industrialisation – driving force  Economic development only way to raise living standards  If everyone prospered then no call for revolution  Identified key problems – insufficient capital, lack of expertise, no manpower

19 Why did the government encourage Economic Development Emancipation  failed to stimulate agricultural development  Russia still backwards  Would create more jobs for freed serfs Economic strength = military strength  Able to produce more weapons to protect Russia Industrial growth  For higher wages  Employment  Cheaper goods  Would guard against social unrest  Couldn't compete with other European countries who had experienced industrial revolution  Had resources but couldn't use them efficiently because of a lack of industry

20 What policies were introduced? Protective Tariffs Foreign investment  1880 – 98 million roubles  1900 – 911 million roubles Peasant Poll Tax abolished Peasants land bank Make Russian currency Stable Expansion of the Railway System  1900 – 53,000 km  1840 – 27 km of railway Taxes raisedAdvice  Foreign experts and workers encouraged to advise on planning and techniques

21 What were the effects of the policies? - Positives Classes  Urbanisation – working classes reached aprox. 11 million Economy expansion  1900 – expanding at 8% per annum  Russia 4 th largest economy  Exploitation of Russia's raw materials  New industrial ideas Growth in foreign Trade  However exports mainly agricultural  Transport – steamboats - train

22 What were the effects of the policies? - Negatives Heavy spending on military  1885 onwards – 50% of government spending on military Low wages and unsecure employment  1899 Russia affected by world depression Poor living and working conditions  Slums, over crowding, pollution, poor health  1904 – 1/3 of houses in st Petersburg had houses with water Workers vulnerable to revolutionary propaganda Church  Influence of Orthodox church weakened – peasants moved to cities Middle class and workers grew  Denied political voice

23 What were the effects of the policies on the rural economy Land bank  Peasants purchased 1/3 of landlords estates  Increased debt and taxes  American farms 1.5 that of Russia and Britain 4 times greater Famine -1891 – peasants  2 million died of starvation, also outbreaks of typhus and cholera  Gov criticised by liberals and radicals  Vyshenegradshy – “we shall not eat but we shall export” Grain exports increased  Low income Taxes raised so peasants sold more grain to survive Backwards methods remained  Land hunger – mir still active  Poor yields Other  Improvements in healthcare  ¾ able to do scheme – 97 million  Didn't deal with strain of growing population  Unfit for military service  IMR – 57.4%  LE – 27 men – 30 women  England's 46  Peasants affected negatively

24 What type of opposition and ideas emerged from the 1880s? Socialist revolutionary party (was populist)  Terrorism and reform from below (peasants) – little support  Wanted parliament - it didn't look after the peasants – wanted village comunes Intellectuals  Criticises Tsarism Middle class and workforce  Potential opponents Liberals (mainly middle class)  Wanted modernisation – more westernised  1904 union of liberation formed– demanded democracy Zemstva  Demanded more powers Marxism  Intellectuals support – revolution from the workers not peasants  Vision of economic and industrial growth  Workers key to power Russian Social democratic labour party  Believed in Marxism – split into:  Bolsheviks – Small, sieze power ASAP  Mensheviks – Spread propaganda – not to lead to revolution

25 Why did radical opposition emerge? Famine 1891-92 Social effects of industrialisation  Urbanisation  More industrial workers  Growing middle classes Marxism  New radical ideas Reactionary policies of Alexander III and chief minister Chief Minister Pobedonostsev Combating opposition – Secret police  Okhrana  Intrusive  Find revolutionary activity  Communists, socialists, trade unions etc..  Torturing, executions and exile

26 What were the reactionary policies? Land captains appointed by Tsarist gov  Control courts, and local gov (Zemstva) Gov direct control over police Harsher Sentencing Severe prison conditions Special courts set up to try political offences  Lberal judges removed Peasant representation in Zemstva reduced Russification – forced to learn language and culture  Discrimination and Anti-Semitism  5million Jews blamed for Russia's problems University fees raised  Tougher requirements and censorship Lower classes got secondary education

27 What reforms were introduced, 1881 – 1904? Peasant land bank  Allowed to buy land from land lords Introduction of 11 ½ hour days  Largely ignored Employment of children under 12 banned Factory inspections Female workers in mines were banned Peasants poll tax abolished

28 Nicholas II 1894-1917 OVERVIEW o Did not want to be Tsar o Unprepared o Autocratic o Believed in the Divine Right from tutor Pobedonstev o Saw reform as a "senseless dream“ o Continued repression - extended Russification. o Could not maintain the regime o Zemstva grew in power and strikes increased o Peasant discontent grew from tax burden o Land hunger resulted from an increase in population o Loss of Russo-Japanese war o Disorganised 1905 revolution which was ended by the weakness of opposition and government concessions Part I

29 Nicholas II 1894-1917 (Part I - 1894-1906) KEY DATES 1894 – Nicholas II becomes Tsar 1902-5 – series of peasant uprisings 1903 – Worst wave of anti Semitic pogroms 1904-5 – Russo-Japanese war Jan 1905 – Bloody Sunday October 1905 – October manifesto March 1906 – Fundamental laws

30 Why did war with Japan break out in 1904-5? Under estimation  Russians believed they would win  War would deflect attention from domestic problems Land Disputes  Japan believed Russia wanted to gain land in the far east  They had disputes over Korea and Manchuria Japan attacks  Japanese attacked the Russian fleet of port Arthur What were the consequences of the war? Result to Russia  Humiliation  Forced to negotiate a peace treaty (Treaty of Portsmouth) and lost influence in the far east Military  Army defeat in 1904 and 05  Total destruction of Russia's main fleet in May 1905 added to the revolutionary process Beginning  Early patriotism and support of the Tsar  War was a distraction from domestic problems

31 What incidents followed Bloody Sunday? As a result...  General strikes swept across Russia, Jan-Feb 1905 – 400,000 strikers  Union of unions formed – demanded reform  Sailors on the Potemkin Battleship mutinied – Putilov Plant strikes  All Russian Peasants union – demanded land reform  Railway Strike – turned into general strike – 2.7 million  Constitutional democratic Party formed – Kadets  Soviet set up – workers council  Workers in Moscow set up baracades – fighting with police and soldiers  Peasant uprisings spread – 3000. – land lords houses property runined How did the 1905 Revolution start? Bloody Sunday-  Jan 1905  Demonstration lead by Father Gapon  They demanded:  8hour working day  Elected assembly  Freedom of speech  150,000 protestors fired on by soldiers in front of Tsars winter palace  Up to 200 deaths 800 wounded

32 Why did Revolution occur in 1905? Economic  Economic Slump – job loss  Poor harvests – starvation, disease, civil unrest  Population expansion lead to pressure on resources  Wittes reforms affected the least paid the most – had to work in bad conditions, low wages and high tax  Peasants – tax and redemption payments Political  Revolutionary groups encouraged action against Tsarism – change only through revolution (SRs)  Military defeat with Japan – humiliation  Repression by gov – secret police and censorship  Disillusionment of middle class who were denied political outlet  Nationalism – non Russians angry at policies towards them (Russification) TRIGGER  Bloody Sunday  9 th /22 nd Jan 1905 Social  Poor living conditions  Poor working conditions  Peasants discontent  War left food shortage, high prices and unemployment

33 What reforms did Nicholas allow and promise in response to the revolution? Peasants  Redemption payments cancelled Government  Nicholas accepted cabinet government and appointed Witte as his first prime minister  Had warned on verge of revolution And the opposition?  United at start of 1905 - Divided by end of 1905  Liberals accepted  St Petersburg soviet called general strike – not supported by workers and middle class  General strike called off – birth of new Russia  Trotsky and Lenin – granted constitution yet autocracy remains – granted everything yet granted nothing Russian people reaction  Celebration – on streets of St Petersburg – sang, waved flags The Fundamental Laws  Legislative power with Duma and council of empire  Tsar approves laws – without, a law cannot exist  Tsar can appoint and dismiss the president of the Duma  Tsar can abolish Duma October Manifesto  It Promised  Elected State Duma  Freedom of Assembly  Freedom of press  Freedom of speech

34 What means of repression did Nicholas and Stolypin use?  Petersburg soviet closed down Laws Fundamental laws  Tsar issued  Limited Duma power  Tsar ultimate authority  Martial law declared Uprising and Violence  Moscow uprising was bloodily put down  Over 1000 workers died – two weeks of street fighting Death penalty  Use of death penalty  5000 death sentences between 1907-09 Opposition  Arrests of opponents  200,000 political prisoners – 1908  1912 – Lena Goldfields massacre  200 strikers killed by soldiers  Strike for working conditions and living conditions  Caused widespread disgust – but not revolution

35 Nicholas II 1905-1917 OVERVIEW o Reforming concessions under the influence of Witte o End of peasant debt o October manifesto - creation of Duma (parliament) which pulled the Liberal movements suit o Fundamental laws 1906 - limited legislative power of the Duma o Stolypin's restrictions made the Duma supportive of the Tsar o The first agrarian reforms created by Stolypin - the Stolypin system Part II

36 May 1906 – Meeting of the First Duma 1907 – Cancellation of redemption payments April 1912 – Lena Goldfields massacre August 1914 – Russia enters FWW 1915-16 – “ministerial leapfrogging” – changing ministers 18 th Feb – 3 rd March – February revolution Nicholas II 1894-1917 (Part II – 1906 - 1917) KEY DATES

37 How did the Dumas operate? 1 st Duma – National hopes  April – June 1906  30% workers/peasents  Majority of SRs, Bolsheviks Mensheviks, Octoberists etc.  Wanted: everyone to have a vote, Land reforms, Trade union rights, Release political prisoners  These were all rejected by Tsar  Dissolved by Tsar – too radical and demanding 2 nd Duma – National anger  Feb – June 1907  Governments attempts to interfere with elections  Dissolved by Tsar after refusing to expel social democratic deputies  Liberal members reduced and left wingers increased  Stolypin dissolved – wanted to change voting system exclude large number voting 3 rd Duma – Lords and Lackeys  3 rd Nov 1907 – 1912  Agreed 2000-2500 gov proposals  Disputes  By the end not working – no control  More representation of nobility  Opposition parties (Bols..) now outnumbered by reactionaries and nationalists 4 th Duma  November 1912- August 1917  Rift between left and right  Number of radicals increased  Duma ignored  Workers took initiative –strike activity and direct action

38 What agrarian reforms were introduced by Stolypin? Success  Immediate impact  15% of the peasantry took up new opportunities  1914 – 25% left communes  10% consolidated their holdings  Land banks set up to help peasants become owners  1907 – redemption payments abolished  Nobility support – revolution less likely Limitations  Not total success  After initial rush applications to leave and consolidate declined  Stolypins peasants became more prosperous (ones who took advantage)  14% of communal land passed onto private ownership  Strip farming carried on and wouldn't give up security of the mir  Couldn't build large farms  Poor and landless peasants - alienated Aims  Goal to transform traditional agriculture  Abolish communal system  Aimed to create a new type of peasant class  “Wager on the strong and sober” - Stolypin

39 Positives  Some increasingly prosperous peasants  Rapidly growing industry  Improving working and living conditions for some – high inflation, no real improvement in their living standards 1905-14  Peasants became richer, gained freedom to buy land, travel and more independence (peasants)  Health service, education, wages (workers)  Professional job expansion, support conservative outlook (middle class)  Stolypins necktie, 3,000 hung, military courts, repression – okrana, Duma (less political opposition)  Banks, oil (second to Texas) 100% increase in production, coal increase – fourth largest (economic growth)  Duma succeeds in land reform, autocrat evolution, loyalty (stability) Lena Goldfield Massacre - 1912 o Gold miners o Long hours o Low pay o Bolsheviks help o Troops opened fire on protestors o 500 killed o Tsars Mother – “We are going to great steps towards some kind of catastrophe” Negatives  Industry still small and inefficient  Agricultural production remained low  Repression did not get rid of opposition –opposition went underground  4/5 still peasants, 60% illiterate, Serbia land taken, increase gap between rich and poor – gained little from boom (peasants)  No trade unions, grim conditions, low education, 1912-14 3mill involved in strike, inflation, Lena goldfields(wk)  Minority, growth in rev. Ideas – Marxism, Bolsheviks etc. (M/class)  inflation, unstable econ, communications not passed on(economic growth)  Duma-lack of power + abollished, fundamental laws, unfair trials, Tsar threat (stability) What was the condition of Russia in 1914?

40 How had Russia developed economically by 1914? Undeveloped  Industry only employed 5% of population  Population explosion – crisis in agriculture and poor working/living conditions  Regime still reliant on depression  No trade unions or legal protection  At mercy of employers  Wages rose but so did inflation -40%  Some areas better than others  Conditions grim  Low levels of education  Lena goldfields  3 million workers invloved in strike activity  4/5 Russian pop. Still peasants – lack of development Developed  Exports growing  Economy growing 8.8% per year – more than western rivals  5 th largest industrial power  Expanded enterprises  State money into heavy industry  4 th largest coal producer  Neglect light industry – grew with consumer demand  State revenue doubled – 4bil roubles  2393 banks by 1914  Factories rise – 2300  Extension of health services  1912- health insurance estab.  10years compulsory education -77% growth in pupils  1914 – 40% literacy rate increase

41 Why was Tsarism able to survive up to 1914? Growing support for the government  Governmental reforms  Education  taxation  Stolypin worked with 3 rd and 4 th Dumas – changed electoral system, co-operation with the Tsars government - more willing  Liberals (octoberists/kadets) – to work with Tsars government  Advance in industrialisation and economic growth  Increased workers standard of living Decline in support for revolutionary groups  Repression of revolutionary groups – authorities successful, secret police infiltration – Lenin, SRs etc. Exiled  1444 people hung in 1907  Arrests and speady trials  3000 suspects convicted and executed  Groups divided –RSDLP into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks  Loss of support – dropped from 150,000 in 1905 to 10,000 in 1914  4 th Duma only 13 seats  Most wanted to get on with the difficult task of living  SR’s – not clear how they would bring change

42 Situation in March 1917 Armed forces  Poorly equipped  Conscription - Refused orders – don’t remain loyal Royal Family  Unpopular – blamed military failings on Nic-Dislike Tsarina- German spy?  Final straw to let Rasputin and Tsarina take over – lost support and nobility support Social and Economic discontent  Only 9% of Russia mobilised -Women and children took over work  People in army relieved pop. Pressures-produce less goods Liberal opposition  Unsuccessful Duma – overruled and abolished  Split, radical action and compromised War  Early patriotism-food shortage  High deaths-opposition (similar to 1905 revolution but larger scale) Tsars actions  Not listen to reform, close duma, reassert authority by joining front line

43 Effects of war at home  Food and fuel shortage- prohibition  Inflation-unemployment Loss of support  Middle classes wanted a greater say  Resentment towards Tsarina and Rasputin  Harsh winters of 1916 Revolution begins  International woman's day- Tsar order to use force  Putliov works strike in Petrograd – 40,000 Tsar goes to front line  Personal responsibility – Tsarina and Rasputin left to run country The effects of war  Deafeats at Tannenberg + Masurian lakes  1 million+ casualties or prisoners of war by 1914 Army takes side  Feb – army refuse to obey orders – some shot officers and joined demonstrations Tsar Abdication  Railway workers refused Tsar entrance to Petrograd –Tsar abdicates and exiled -Siberia

44 IN DEATAIL – Masurian Lakes and Tannenberg Masurian lake and Tannenberg battles: o Suffered humiliating defeats o 1 million losses and casualties o Large majority of the killed were inexperienced soldiers o Drop in moral o Low intake o Desertion and mutinies o Not properly equipped – clothing, two riffles between three o Communication problems o Nic II went to front line – questioning of Tsars capability – personally responsible o Mobilised 15million men between 1914 and 1917 – Positive o Began to make 10,000 riffles a month - Positive

45 Provisional Government 1917+ OVERVIEW o Sometimes known as the "Kerensky Government" after its leader. o It lasted approximately eight months o Led by socialist Alexander Kerensky, a prominent member of the Duma and a leader of the movement to unseat the Tsar. o The Provisional Government was unable to make decisive policy decisions o This weakness left the government open to strong challenges from both the right and the left. o The period of competition for authority ended in late October 1917 o Bolsheviks routed the ministers of the Provisional Government in the events known as the October Revolution o They then placed power in the hands of the soviets, or "workers councils," which they largely controlled.

46 Provisional Government 1917+ KEY DATES 27 th Feb 1917 – First meeting of Petrograd soviet (workers, sailors etc.) 27 th Feb 1917 – Provisional Government established 3 rd April 1917 – Lenins return 3 rd -6 th July 1917 – the July Days August 1917 – Kornilov revolt 24 th Oct 1917 – Members of the red guard seize key points in Petrograd

47 What was the impact of the FWW - Military Faith in the Tsar  Lost as commander in chief  Made the decision to join and command the Russian armed forces Losses  1.6 million deaths by 1917  3.9 million wounded  2.4 million taken prisoner  Mass mutinies Defeats  Only 8.8% mobilised  Compared to Germanys 20.5%  Lacked equipment and admin  Within first two years met demands - but after huge shortages  Lacked equipment and admin  Food shortages  Attitude turned to pessimism and defeatism Stone – some historians may have exaggerated Russia's weakness in 1917

48 Fuel Shortages  The lack of coal increase  Hugely affect transport  Moscow and Petrograd got 1/3 rd of the fuel it needed Transport/Food  Disruption of rails caused massive food shortages  By 1914 Russia had 44,000 miles of railway  Huge pressures to transport troops and food to front line  Food left to rot as the side of rail – breakdowns  Petrograd and Moscow got 1/3 rd of the food it needed  Hunger/famine reality of war  Lack of resources for the population Cost  Inflation  In three years meat prices rose by 232%  1.5 billion roubles spent on war  High taxation and borrowing from abroad gave Russia the funds it needed  Wages were paid but money was worthless What was the impact of the FWW - Economic

49 What was the impact of the FWW - Politically Support for Radicals increase  Social revolutionaries,  Mensheviks  Bolsheviks Formation of progressive bloc  Kadets, octoberists, nationalists and progressive industrialists  Liberal members of Dumas  Opposed Tsarism  Bloc to persuade Tsar to make concessions – focal point of politic resistance Loss in government support  Tsar devoted to autocracy  Tsars refusal to cooperate with non- gov organisations – Zemstva, union of town councils  Military zones – civilian authority taken over in these areas  Zemstva and city authorities became the Zemgor – focus of liberal opposition  Zemgor  Help for war wounded Russians  Highlighted gov. Failures  Alternative to Tsarism?  Tsarina reputation damaged by Rasputin’s influence over her  Tsarina German – spy?

50 The February Revolution - 1917 Demonstrations intensified  Attacked gov buildings – Down with the Tsar, Down with the War Tsar unable to return to Petrograd  Workers had railways torn up International Women's Day + Striking workers  240,000 involved Demonstrations  Continued and Grew and spread  Soldiers joined in  Petrograd garrison refused to fire at crowds – as Nic ordered  Half actively supported revolution Tsar refusal to form new government at request of Duma Generals convinced Nic II to abdicate  “Would help war effort” - Ruzsky Provisional Gov formed  Included members of progressive bloc and Petrograd soviet Who supported revolution? o Revolution was spontaneous o It was not planned by political parties o Sukhanov – “No one party was preparing for the great overturn” Why did the February Revolution occur? o The Long war was overwhelming o Government could not cope with the war

51 Who supported revolution? o Revolution was spontaneous o It was not planned by political parties o Sukhanov – “No one party was preparing for the great overturn” Why did the February Revolution occur? o The Long war was overwhelming o Government could not cope with the war

52 What were the problems faced by the Provisional Government, March-Oct 1917 Kornilov Affair  General Kornilov – march into Petrograd (wanted stricter discipline)  Pro Gov armed workers  Kerensky turned to Bolsheviks for support to help defend  Exploited the weakness of the gov  Had to rely on opposition to stay in power Food and Fuel shortages  Continued  Especially in towns and cities The War  Continued losses and desertions  July (1917) offensive failed  Loyalty to allies Dual Power  Between Pro gov and Petrograd soviet  Needed soviets support to pass anything Land Redistribution  Provisional gov delayed this and refused  Peasants began to seize land  July 1917 – 1,100 illegal attacks by peasants on landlords property  Deserters returned home to claim their land Continuingly growing opposition  Bolsheviks grew – “peace, bread, land”  Kornilov Affair key to this  SR’s Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Inspired by Marxism Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government o Provisional government = formed from Kadet and Octoberist members of the Duma o Soviets = Workers, soldiers – 3000 members – not dominated by one racial party o May 1917 – Soviets joined the Provisional Government

53 Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government o Provisional government = formed from Kadet and Octoberist members of the Duma o Soviets = Workers, soldiers – 3000 members – not dominated by one racial party o May 1917 – Soviets joined the Provisional Government

54 What were the problems faced by the Provisional Government, March-Oct 1917....Kornilov Affair in Detail  July days – series of demonstrations/strikes/protests  Exploited the provisional government as weak – having a lack of control over the Russian people  Kornilov believed in stricter discipline of the Russian people to repress them  Believed he could take over and do a better job  For those who didn't comply harsher penalties or sent to front line  General Kornilov – march into Petrograd  Pro Gov armed workers  Kerensky turned to Bolsheviks for support to help defend  Exploited the weakness of the gov  Had to rely on opposition to stay in power Then what?  Bolsheviks seized opportunity to organise workers red guards  Kerensky supplied with arms  Kerensky ordered Kornilov to surrender (was planning military dictatorship?)  Sept 1 st – Kornilov and General arrested

55 Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power? Trotsky’s (Bol) organisation helped them ‘seize the moment’  He became chairman of soviet  Soldiers agreed to give Bolsheviks weapons Lenin was a good leader  April Thesis –  End to war  All power to the soviets  Peace bread land  Kornilov affair showed that Bolsheviks could lead  Bolsheviks opposed the provisional government  Not compromised by their involvement  SR’s and Mensheviks were The Pro Gov became more and more disliked (previous slide) The Bolsheviks were increasingly popular  Majority party in Petrograd

56 How did the Bolsheviks seize power? Social revolutionaries and Mensheviks refused to work with Bolsheviks  So Bolsheviks formed a government alone. Lenin announced replacement of the Provisional Government 24 th Oct 1917 – Bolsheviks took up key points in Petrograd  Bridges  Post offices  Railways  Banks Kerensky (pro gov leader) appealed for help – but none came Revolution was a coup d’etat - blow state

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