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AS History: Tsarist Russia

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1 AS History: Tsarist Russia 1855 - 1917

2 Why was Russia Backwards?
Political Autocracy No opposition/ other political parties Nobles in control Secret police Conscripted Army Economic Harsh winter – affected farming Backwards farming methods Banking undeveloped No consumer demand for products Poor communications Social 50 million serfs – 82% of the population 800,000 industrial workers No demand to develop Social hierarchy Mostly of Russian Orthodox religion 3500 people in 6 universities Other Factors Climate – frozen lakes, hard to import and trade on Size of Russia – Extremely hard due to the poor communications

3 Alexander II 1855-1881 OVERVIEW Tsar liberator
Failed to provide long term solutions Emancipation of the serfs peasants were allowed to but land from redemption payments to the state for 49years Established the zemstva; elected council, 40% voted by peasants Extended primary and secondary education Universities became autonomous and reduced class bias Increased criticism of Tsarism - peasants became indebted and led to rise of populist revolutionary movements such as the People's Will Zemztva led to a desire for democracy Increased number of educated people Provided the potential for an organised party - not established till 20th century Assassinated 1881 by People's Will

4 Alexander II 1855-1881 KEY DATES
Alexander II becomes Tsar 1861 – Emancipation of serfs 1863 – What is to be done? Published – Railway Mania years 1877 – Political trials of the populists who had “gone to the people” March 1881 – Alexander II assassinated

5 Why did Alex Emancipate the Serfs?
Alex's own views Would bring a more dynamic economy Serfdom morally wrong – western view In order for modernisation to happen serfs had to be emancipated 3rd March 1861 emancipation signed and published RUSSIA NEEDED TO MODERNISE TO REMAIN A GREAT POWER AND BECOME MORE WESTERNISED – THIS COULD ONLY HAPPEN THROUGH EMANCIPATION SERFDOM HAD LEAD TO- Prevention of labour market No need to modernise methods Crimean war exposing Russia's backwardness Peasant revolts (there had been 1467 before 1800) “Better to abolish from above, than have it forced upon us from below.” – Alex FOR THIS TO CHANGE SERFDOM HAD TO BE ABOLISHED Political Social structure did nothing for the nobility Nobles income fell and were still dependent on serfs Crimean War Against Turkey – suffering a humiliating defeat. Russia realised they had to develop and modernise Had to get rid of conscription and serfdom 374,600 deaths in total Economic Nobles forced to take out mortgages on previously owned estates Population doubled in the first half of the century Russia needed to catch up and reassert its power Would lead to more productive peasants Plans to build a great rail. Moral + Intellectual Nihilists- ? Intelligentsia- wanted change Reform amongst intellectuals began 1?55 which divided opinion on Russia becoming more western They all suggested different methods

6 RUSSIA NEEDED TO MODERNISE TO REMAIN A GREAT POWER AND BECOME MORE WESTERNISED – THIS COULD ONLY HAPPEN THROUGH EMANCIPATION SERFDOM HAD LEAD TO- Prevention of labour market No need to modernise methods Crimean war exposing Russia's backwardness Peasant revolts (there had been 1467 before 1800) “Better to abolish from above, than have it forced upon us from below.” – Alex FOR THIS TO CHANGE SERFDOM HAD TO BE ABOLISHED

7 How were the Serfs Emancipated?
Feb 1861 Serfs Freed - 40 million Gains Losses A starting block for the peasants? Peasants granted land and property Rights to marry, travel and set up businesses In return from the peasants? Peasants to pay redemption payments for 49 years These had a high - 6% interest Payments often grater than land value Had to stay within commune until all payments made. Compensation? To land owners that lost out Compensation often much higher than the land that was taken was actually worth However? Peasants had to wait two years State peasants 5 years

8 What were the problems with Emancipation?
Peasants had less land – often infertile and scattered Peasants paid more tax – so high that they had to sell all their grain, leaving nothing for them to survive on Little changed – peasants still tied to land and Mir and still used traditional farming methods Household serfs who had no agricultural skills had to find other employment which often wasn't very well paid or productive – only gained freedom and no land Landlords paid off debts – did not invest in the economy 248 out of 543million roubles paid to land lords as compensation was used to pay off debts Russia remained backwards – ‘new type of slavery’

9 What was the impact of Alexander II’s other reforms?
Military Action Taken Lowered conscription to 6years (was 25) Improved training Humane discipline More efficient Positives Not forced to join Military advanced Negatives Serfs unable to get higher ranks Higher classes dominated Education Action Taken Funded educational institutions Positives Schools open to all regardless of sex or class. Aimed to help catch up with western modernised countries Curriculum Inspectors More poor and women in unis Negatives Radical an militant thinkers increased/ revolutionary ideas Economic Development Tsar tried to modernise Russia by: Emancipation Railways Banks He acheieved: 13,000 line of railway Building blocks on the way to modernisation But failed at: Modernising Russia as it still lagged behind western Russia People not totally freed Time scale – too slow Local Gov. Action Taken System of elected local councils Electoral collages Positives Zhemstva (filled voids from emancipation), had a range of powers to make improvements e.g. To roads Negatives Votes – so nobility kept dominant Democracy not achieved. Short on money Judicial Action Taken Local courts set up Made fairer system Positives Equality established – more chance of a fair trial - juries Less judges giving into black mail Negatives Little chance of justice No questioning Everyone presumed guilty

10 Economic Development Tsar tried to modernise Russia by: Emancipation Railways Banks He acheieved: 13,000 line of railway Building blocks on the way to modernisation But failed at: Modernising Russia as it still lagged behind western Russia People not totally freed Time scale – too slow

11 Why did his reforms come to an end?
April 1866 – Assassination attempt Personal life – Affair and death of son – retreated from political life Criticisms – Slavophiles “gone too far” – westernises “not far enough” More Conservative ministers appointed Increased radical demands and revolutionary activity Polish Revolt – He saw it as ingratitude and pointlessness to further reform

12 What was the extent of the reaction up to 1881?
Education Increased censorship over universitys Increased restrictions on entry requirements (prevent lower classes getting in) Press Used to attack critics of government Sentencing Harsher sentences in jail or exile Separate political trials Violence and opposition still grew Alexander assassinated by the peoples will.

13 How significant was opposition to Tsarism up to 1881?
Why did opposition grow from the 1960s? Alexander II’s reforms raised expectations Discontent amongst higher classes – Nobles, landlords Better to reform from above, than have a reform from below Failure to fulfil expectations of reforms Right win opposition Students studied abroad and returned with new ideas Less censorship meant new ideas new ideas (and criticisms) spread quickly Marxism Populism – made the government aware of the strong feelings – loss of authority and direction Intellectuals like Herzen and Chernyshevsky (what is to be done?) were influential

14 What type of radical opposition was there in the 1860s and 1870s?
Populism Students Persuade peasants to revolt “going to the people”- dressed up 3000 went to the countryside Win over with socialists ideas But peasants were ignorant and ignored them Land and liberty emerged from this – more radical and better organised -violence The peoples will From land and liberty Used direct violence –terrorism Against gov. in attempt to spark revolution Tsar had to be removed Did not use real names – Okrana 37 members + Mikhailov - leader Before the assassination the group had made 8 attempts to kill him. Attempts mostly failed – for example blowing up the wrong train Big threat to Tsardom Resulted in political trials – 5 hanged, 2 executed, 1 life imprisonment, 1 reduced to 20 yrs Two break off groups Younger peoples will + the other; Terrorism Section (killed Alex III) Black partition Tried to persuade peasants to revolt Propaganda without having to use violence

15 Why did terrorism fail to destroy Tsarism?
The terrorists failed to gain enough support Terrorists offered no alternative form of government Conservatives continued to support the Tsar rather than radicals

16 Alexander III 1881-1894 OVERVIEW Period of successful repression
Crushed revolutionaries in the short term Economic change from Witte and the great spurt Utilised emergency powers Created the Okhrana Increased censorship Created land captains Increased government interference in laws Restricted the zemstva and education Period of Russification Supported industrialisation - 8% increase per anum Exploited agriculture as a form of income from exports Created stability for autocracy He predicted 1905 revolution from the growth of urban and rural unrest

17 Alexander III 1881-1894 KEY DATES
March 1881 – Alexander III becomes Tsar 1885 – Peasant land banks – Russia's worst famine of the 19th century 1892 – Witte takes over from Vyshnegradsky 1894 – Nicholas becomes Tsar

18 Vyshenegradsky and Witte
Finance minister Trans Siberian rail and tariffs Stronger gov interference Increased tax (on peasants) and pushed for exportation of goods Balanced budget deficit famine Witte Finance minister – 1893 Highly influential – extensive industrialisation Oversaw construction of railway Economic growth Foreign investments encouraged Gold standard Committed to industrialisation – driving force Economic development only way to raise living standards If everyone prospered then no call for revolution Identified key problems – insufficient capital, lack of expertise, no manpower

19 Why did the government encourage Economic Development
Emancipation failed to stimulate agricultural development Russia still backwards Would create more jobs for freed serfs Economic strength = military strength Able to produce more weapons to protect Russia Industrial growth For higher wages Employment Cheaper goods Would guard against social unrest Couldn't compete with other European countries who had experienced industrial revolution Had resources but couldn't use them efficiently because of a lack of industry

20 What policies were introduced?
Protective Tariffs Foreign investment 1880 – 98 million roubles 1900 – 911 million roubles Make Russian currency Stable Expansion of the Railway System 1900 – 53,000 km 1840 – 27 km of railway Peasants land bank Peasant Poll Tax abolished Advice Foreign experts and workers encouraged to advise on planning and techniques Taxes raised

21 What were the effects of the policies? - Positives
Economy expansion 1900 – expanding at 8% per annum Russia 4th largest economy Exploitation of Russia's raw materials New industrial ideas Classes Urbanisation – working classes reached aprox. 11 million Growth in foreign Trade However exports mainly agricultural Transport – steamboats - train

22 What were the effects of the policies? - Negatives
Poor living and working conditions Slums, over crowding, pollution, poor health 1904 – 1/3 of houses in st Petersburg had houses with water Low wages and unsecure employment 1899 Russia affected by world depression Church Influence of Orthodox church weakened – peasants moved to cities Workers vulnerable to revolutionary propaganda Heavy spending on military 1885 onwards – 50% of government spending on military Middle class and workers grew Denied political voice

23 What were the effects of the policies on the rural economy
Grain exports increased Low income Taxes raised so peasants sold more grain to survive Backwards methods remained Land hunger – mir still active Poor yields Famine – peasants 2 million died of starvation, also outbreaks of typhus and cholera Gov criticised by liberals and radicals Vyshenegradshy – “we shall not eat but we shall export” Other Improvements in healthcare ¾ able to do scheme – 97 million Didn't deal with strain of growing population Unfit for military service IMR – 57.4% LE – 27 men – 30 women England's 46 Peasants affected negatively Land bank Peasants purchased 1/3 of landlords estates Increased debt and taxes American farms 1.5 that of Russia and Britain 4 times greater

24 What type of opposition and ideas emerged from the 1880s?
Middle class and workforce Potential opponents Marxism Intellectuals support – revolution from the workers not peasants Vision of economic and industrial growth Workers key to power Intellectuals Criticises Tsarism Zemstva Demanded more powers Liberals (mainly middle class) Wanted modernisation – more westernised 1904 union of liberation formed– demanded democracy Russian Social democratic labour party Believed in Marxism – split into: Bolsheviks – Small, sieze power ASAP Mensheviks – Spread propaganda – not to lead to revolution Socialist revolutionary party (was populist) Terrorism and reform from below (peasants) – little support Wanted parliament - it didn't look after the peasants – wanted village comunes

25 Why did radical opposition emerge?
Marxism New radical ideas Social effects of industrialisation Urbanisation More industrial workers Growing middle classes Reactionary policies of Alexander III and chief minister Chief Minister Pobedonostsev Famine Combating opposition – Secret police Okhrana Intrusive Find revolutionary activity Communists, socialists, trade unions etc.. Torturing, executions and exile

26 What were the reactionary policies?
Harsher Sentencing Special courts set up to try political offences Lberal judges removed Gov direct control over police Severe prison conditions Land captains appointed by Tsarist gov Control courts, and local gov (Zemstva) Russification – forced to learn language and culture Discrimination and Anti-Semitism 5million Jews blamed for Russia's problems University fees raised Tougher requirements and censorship Peasant representation in Zemstva reduced Lower classes got secondary education

27 What reforms were introduced, 1881 – 1904?
Employment of children under 12 banned Female workers in mines were banned Introduction of 11 ½ hour days Largely ignored Factory inspections Peasant land bank Allowed to buy land from land lords Peasants poll tax abolished

28 Nicholas II 1894-1917 OVERVIEW Did not want to be Tsar Unprepared
Part I Nicholas II OVERVIEW Did not want to be Tsar Unprepared Autocratic Believed in the Divine Right from tutor Pobedonstev Saw reform as a "senseless dream“ Continued repression - extended Russification. Could not maintain the regime Zemstva grew in power and strikes increased Peasant discontent grew from tax burden Land hunger resulted from an increase in population Loss of Russo-Japanese war Disorganised 1905 revolution which was ended by the weakness of opposition and government concessions

29 Nicholas II 1894-1917 (Part I - 1894-1906) KEY DATES
1894 – Nicholas II becomes Tsar – series of peasant uprisings 1903 – Worst wave of anti Semitic pogroms – Russo-Japanese war Jan 1905 – Bloody Sunday October 1905 – October manifesto March 1906 – Fundamental laws

30 Why did war with Japan break out in 1904-5?
Land Disputes Japan believed Russia wanted to gain land in the far east They had disputes over Korea and Manchuria Japan attacks Japanese attacked the Russian fleet of port Arthur Under estimation Russians believed they would win War would deflect attention from domestic problems What were the consequences of the war? Beginning Early patriotism and support of the Tsar War was a distraction from domestic problems Military Army defeat in 1904 and 05 Total destruction of Russia's main fleet in May 1905 added to the revolutionary process Result to Russia Humiliation Forced to negotiate a peace treaty (Treaty of Portsmouth) and lost influence in the far east

31 What incidents followed Bloody Sunday?
How did the 1905 Revolution start? Bloody Sunday- Jan 1905 Demonstration lead by Father Gapon They demanded: 8hour working day Elected assembly Freedom of speech 150,000 protestors fired on by soldiers in front of Tsars winter palace Up to 200 deaths 800 wounded As a result... General strikes swept across Russia, Jan-Feb 1905 – 400,000 strikers Union of unions formed – demanded reform Sailors on the Potemkin Battleship mutinied – Putilov Plant strikes All Russian Peasants union – demanded land reform Railway Strike – turned into general strike – 2.7 million Constitutional democratic Party formed – Kadets Soviet set up – workers council Workers in Moscow set up baracades – fighting with police and soldiers Peasant uprisings spread – – land lords houses property runined

32 Why did Revolution occur in 1905?
Political Revolutionary groups encouraged action against Tsarism – change only through revolution (SRs) Military defeat with Japan – humiliation Repression by gov – secret police and censorship Disillusionment of middle class who were denied political outlet Nationalism – non Russians angry at policies towards them (Russification) TRIGGER Bloody Sunday 9th/22nd Jan 1905 Social Poor living conditions Poor working conditions Peasants discontent War left food shortage, high prices and unemployment Economic Economic Slump – job loss Poor harvests – starvation, disease, civil unrest Population expansion lead to pressure on resources Wittes reforms affected the least paid the most – had to work in bad conditions, low wages and high tax Peasants – tax and redemption payments

33 Russian people reaction
What reforms did Nicholas allow and promise in response to the revolution? Government Nicholas accepted cabinet government and appointed Witte as his first prime minister Had warned on verge of revolution October Manifesto It Promised Elected State Duma Freedom of Assembly Freedom of press Freedom of speech Peasants Redemption payments cancelled The Fundamental Laws Legislative power with Duma and council of empire Tsar approves laws – without, a law cannot exist Tsar can appoint and dismiss the president of the Duma Tsar can abolish Duma Russian people reaction Celebration – on streets of St Petersburg – sang, waved flags And the opposition? United at start of Divided by end of 1905 Liberals accepted St Petersburg soviet called general strike – not supported by workers and middle class General strike called off – birth of new Russia Trotsky and Lenin – granted constitution yet autocracy remains – granted everything yet granted nothing

34 What means of repression did Nicholas and Stolypin use?
Petersburg soviet closed down Opposition Arrests of opponents 200,000 political prisoners – 1908 1912 – Lena Goldfields massacre 200 strikers killed by soldiers Strike for working conditions and living conditions Caused widespread disgust – but not revolution Laws Fundamental laws Tsar issued Limited Duma power Tsar ultimate authority Martial law declared Uprising and Violence Moscow uprising was bloodily put down Over 1000 workers died – two weeks of street fighting Death penalty Use of death penalty 5000 death sentences between

35 Part II Nicholas II OVERVIEW Reforming concessions under the influence of Witte End of peasant debt October manifesto - creation of Duma (parliament) which pulled the Liberal movements suit Fundamental laws limited legislative power of the Duma Stolypin's restrictions made the Duma supportive of the Tsar The first agrarian reforms created by Stolypin - the Stolypin system

36 Nicholas II 1894-1917 (Part II – 1906 - 1917) KEY DATES
May 1906 – Meeting of the First Duma 1907 – Cancellation of redemption payments April 1912 – Lena Goldfields massacre August 1914 – Russia enters FWW – “ministerial leapfrogging” – changing ministers 18th Feb – 3rd March – February revolution

37 How did the Dumas operate?
1st Duma – National hopes April – June 1906 30% workers/peasents Majority of SRs, Bolsheviks Mensheviks, Octoberists etc. Wanted: everyone to have a vote, Land reforms, Trade union rights, Release political prisoners These were all rejected by Tsar Dissolved by Tsar – too radical and demanding 2nd Duma – National anger Feb – June 1907 Governments attempts to interfere with elections Dissolved by Tsar after refusing to expel social democratic deputies Liberal members reduced and left wingers increased Stolypin dissolved – wanted to change voting system exclude large number voting 3rd Duma – Lords and Lackeys 3rd Nov 1907 – 1912 Agreed gov proposals Disputes By the end not working – no control More representation of nobility Opposition parties (Bols..) now outnumbered by reactionaries and nationalists 4th Duma November August 1917 Rift between left and right Number of radicals increased Duma ignored Workers took initiative –strike activity and direct action

38 What agrarian reforms were introduced by Stolypin?
Aims Goal to transform traditional agriculture Abolish communal system Aimed to create a new type of peasant class “Wager on the strong and sober” - Stolypin Success Immediate impact 15% of the peasantry took up new opportunities 1914 – 25% left communes 10% consolidated their holdings Land banks set up to help peasants become owners 1907 – redemption payments abolished Nobility support – revolution less likely Limitations Not total success After initial rush applications to leave and consolidate declined Stolypins peasants became more prosperous (ones who took advantage) 14% of communal land passed onto private ownership Strip farming carried on and wouldn't give up security of the mir Couldn't build large farms Poor and landless peasants - alienated

39 What was the condition of Russia in 1914?
Positives Some increasingly prosperous peasants Rapidly growing industry Improving working and living conditions for some – high inflation, no real improvement in their living standards Peasants became richer, gained freedom to buy land, travel and more independence (peasants) Health service, education, wages (workers) Professional job expansion, support conservative outlook (middle class) Stolypins necktie, 3,000 hung, military courts, repression – okrana, Duma (less political opposition) Banks, oil (second to Texas) 100% increase in production, coal increase – fourth largest (economic growth) Duma succeeds in land reform, autocrat evolution, loyalty (stability) Negatives Industry still small and inefficient Agricultural production remained low Repression did not get rid of opposition –opposition went underground 4/5 still peasants, 60% illiterate, Serbia land taken, increase gap between rich and poor – gained little from boom (peasants) No trade unions, grim conditions, low education, mill involved in strike, inflation, Lena goldfields(wk) Minority, growth in rev. Ideas – Marxism, Bolsheviks etc. (M/class) inflation, unstable econ, communications not passed on(economic growth) Duma-lack of power + abollished, fundamental laws, unfair trials, Tsar threat (stability) What was the condition of Russia in 1914? Lena Goldfield Massacre Gold miners Long hours Low pay Bolsheviks help Troops opened fire on protestors 500 killed Tsars Mother – “We are going to great steps towards some kind of catastrophe”

40 How had Russia developed economically by 1914?
Exports growing Economy growing 8.8% per year – more than western rivals 5th largest industrial power Expanded enterprises State money into heavy industry 4th largest coal producer Neglect light industry – grew with consumer demand State revenue doubled – 4bil roubles 2393 banks by 1914 Factories rise – 2300 Extension of health services 1912- health insurance estab. 10years compulsory education -77% growth in pupils 1914 – 40% literacy rate increase Undeveloped Industry only employed 5% of population Population explosion – crisis in agriculture and poor working/living conditions Regime still reliant on depression No trade unions or legal protection At mercy of employers Wages rose but so did inflation -40% Some areas better than others Conditions grim Low levels of education Lena goldfields 3 million workers invloved in strike activity 4/5 Russian pop. Still peasants – lack of development

41 Why was Tsarism able to survive up to 1914?
Decline in support for revolutionary groups Repression of revolutionary groups – authorities successful, secret police infiltration – Lenin, SRs etc. Exiled 1444 people hung in 1907 Arrests and speady trials 3000 suspects convicted and executed Groups divided –RSDLP into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Loss of support – dropped from 150,000 in 1905 to 10,000 in 1914 4th Duma only 13 seats Most wanted to get on with the difficult task of living SR’s – not clear how they would bring change Growing support for the government Governmental reforms Education taxation Stolypin worked with 3rd and 4th Dumas – changed electoral system, co-operation with the Tsars government - more willing Liberals (octoberists/kadets) – to work with Tsars government Advance in industrialisation and economic growth Increased workers standard of living

42 Social and Economic discontent
Situation in March 1917 Tsars actions Not listen to reform, close duma, reassert authority by joining front line Social and Economic discontent Only 9% of Russia mobilised -Women and children took over work People in army relieved pop. Pressures -produce less goods Royal Family Unpopular – blamed military failings on Nic -Dislike Tsarina- German spy? Final straw to let Rasputin and Tsarina take over – lost support and nobility support Liberal opposition Unsuccessful Duma – overruled and abolished Split, radical action and compromised Armed forces Poorly equipped Conscription Refused orders – don’t remain loyal War Early patriotism -food shortage High deaths -opposition (similar to 1905 revolution but larger scale)

43 Tsar Abdication Army takes side Revolution begins Loss of support
Railway workers refused Tsar entrance to Petrograd –Tsar abdicates and exiled -Siberia Army takes side Feb – army refuse to obey orders – some shot officers and joined demonstrations Revolution begins International woman's day- Tsar order to use force Putliov works strike in Petrograd – 40,000 Loss of support Middle classes wanted a greater say Resentment towards Tsarina and Rasputin Harsh winters of 1916 Tsar goes to front line Personal responsibility – Tsarina and Rasputin left to run country Effects of war at home Food and fuel shortage - prohibition Inflation -unemployment The effects of war Deafeats at Tannenberg + Masurian lakes 1 million+ casualties or prisoners of war by 1914

44 IN DEATAIL – Masurian Lakes and Tannenberg
Masurian lake and Tannenberg battles: Suffered humiliating defeats 1 million losses and casualties Large majority of the killed were inexperienced soldiers Drop in moral Low intake Desertion and mutinies Not properly equipped – clothing, two riffles between three Communication problems Nic II went to front line – questioning of Tsars capability – personally responsible Mobilised 15million men between 1914 and 1917 – Positive Began to make 10,000 riffles a month - Positive

45 Provisional Government 1917+
OVERVIEW Sometimes known as the "Kerensky Government" after its leader. It lasted approximately eight months Led by socialist Alexander Kerensky, a prominent member of the Duma and a leader of the movement to unseat the Tsar. The Provisional Government was unable to make decisive policy decisions This weakness left the government open to strong challenges from both the right and the left. The period of competition for authority ended in late October 1917 Bolsheviks routed the ministers of the Provisional Government in the events known as the October Revolution They then placed power in the hands of the soviets, or "workers councils," which they largely controlled.

46 Provisional Government 1917+ KEY DATES
27th Feb 1917 – First meeting of Petrograd soviet (workers, sailors etc.) 27th Feb 1917 – Provisional Government established 3rd April 1917 – Lenins return 3rd-6th July 1917 – the July Days August 1917 – Kornilov revolt 24th Oct 1917 – Members of the red guard seize key points in Petrograd

47 What was the impact of the FWW - Military
Defeats Only 8.8% mobilised Compared to Germanys 20.5% Lacked equipment and admin Within first two years met demands - but after huge shortages Food shortages Attitude turned to pessimism and defeatism Losses 1.6 million deaths by 1917 3.9 million wounded 2.4 million taken prisoner Mass mutinies Faith in the Tsar Lost as commander in chief Made the decision to join and command the Russian armed forces Stone – some historians may have exaggerated Russia's weakness in 1917

48 What was the impact of the FWW - Economic
Cost Inflation In three years meat prices rose by 232% 1.5 billion roubles spent on war High taxation and borrowing from abroad gave Russia the funds it needed Wages were paid but money was worthless Transport/Food Disruption of rails caused massive food shortages By 1914 Russia had 44,000 miles of railway Huge pressures to transport troops and food to front line Food left to rot as the side of rail – breakdowns Petrograd and Moscow got 1/3rd of the food it needed Hunger/famine reality of war Lack of resources for the population Fuel Shortages The lack of coal increase Hugely affect transport Moscow and Petrograd got 1/3rd of the fuel it needed

49 What was the impact of the FWW - Politically
Loss in government support Tsar devoted to autocracy Tsars refusal to cooperate with non-gov organisations – Zemstva, union of town councils Military zones – civilian authority taken over in these areas Zemstva and city authorities became the Zemgor – focus of liberal opposition Zemgor Help for war wounded Russians Highlighted gov. Failures Alternative to Tsarism? Tsarina reputation damaged by Rasputin’s influence over her Tsarina German – spy? Formation of progressive bloc Kadets, octoberists, nationalists and progressive industrialists Liberal members of Dumas Opposed Tsarism Bloc to persuade Tsar to make concessions – focal point of politic resistance Support for Radicals increase Social revolutionaries, Mensheviks Bolsheviks

50 The February Revolution - 1917
International Women's Day + Striking workers 240,000 involved Demonstrations Continued and Grew and spread Soldiers joined in Petrograd garrison refused to fire at crowds – as Nic ordered Half actively supported revolution Demonstrations intensified Attacked gov buildings – Down with the Tsar, Down with the War Who supported revolution? Revolution was spontaneous It was not planned by political parties Sukhanov – “No one party was preparing for the great overturn” Why did the February Revolution occur? The Long war was overwhelming Government could not cope with the war Tsar refusal to form new government at request of Duma Tsar unable to return to Petrograd Workers had railways torn up Generals convinced Nic II to abdicate “Would help war effort” - Ruzsky Provisional Gov formed Included members of progressive bloc and Petrograd soviet

51 Who supported revolution?
Revolution was spontaneous It was not planned by political parties Sukhanov – “No one party was preparing for the great overturn” Why did the February Revolution occur? The Long war was overwhelming Government could not cope with the war

52 Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government
What were the problems faced by the Provisional Government, March-Oct 1917 The War Continued losses and desertions July (1917) offensive failed Loyalty to allies Land Redistribution Provisional gov delayed this and refused Peasants began to seize land July 1917 – 1,100 illegal attacks by peasants on landlords property Deserters returned home to claim their land Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government Provisional government = formed from Kadet and Octoberist members of the Duma Soviets = Workers, soldiers – 3000 members – not dominated by one racial party May 1917 – Soviets joined the Provisional Government Food and Fuel shortages Continued Especially in towns and cities Kornilov Affair General Kornilov – march into Petrograd (wanted stricter discipline) Pro Gov armed workers Kerensky turned to Bolsheviks for support to help defend Exploited the weakness of the gov Had to rely on opposition to stay in power Dual Power Between Pro gov and Petrograd soviet Needed soviets support to pass anything Continuingly growing opposition Bolsheviks grew – “peace, bread, land” Kornilov Affair key to this SR’s Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Inspired by Marxism

53 Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government
Provisional government = formed from Kadet and Octoberist members of the Duma Soviets = Workers, soldiers – 3000 members – not dominated by one racial party May 1917 – Soviets joined the Provisional Government

54 What were the problems faced by the Provisional Government, March-Oct Kornilov Affair in Detail July days – series of demonstrations/strikes/protests Exploited the provisional government as weak – having a lack of control over the Russian people Kornilov believed in stricter discipline of the Russian people to repress them Believed he could take over and do a better job For those who didn't comply harsher penalties or sent to front line General Kornilov – march into Petrograd Pro Gov armed workers Kerensky turned to Bolsheviks for support to help defend Exploited the weakness of the gov Had to rely on opposition to stay in power Then what? Bolsheviks seized opportunity to organise workers red guards Kerensky supplied with arms Kerensky ordered Kornilov to surrender (was planning military dictatorship?) Sept 1st – Kornilov and General arrested

55 Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power?
The Pro Gov became more and more disliked (previous slide) The Bolsheviks were increasingly popular Majority party in Petrograd Lenin was a good leader April Thesis – End to war All power to the soviets Peace bread land Kornilov affair showed that Bolsheviks could lead Bolsheviks opposed the provisional government Not compromised by their involvement SR’s and Mensheviks were Trotsky’s (Bol) organisation helped them ‘seize the moment’ He became chairman of soviet Soldiers agreed to give Bolsheviks weapons

56 How did the Bolsheviks seize power?
24th Oct 1917 – Bolsheviks took up key points in Petrograd Bridges Post offices Railways Banks Kerensky (pro gov leader) appealed for help – but none came Lenin announced replacement of the Provisional Government Social revolutionaries and Mensheviks refused to work with Bolsheviks So Bolsheviks formed a government alone. Revolution was a coup d’etat - blow state

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