2From… Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Manager’s OverviewFrom… Maintenance TechnicalAdvisory Guide (MTAG)The intent of the Manager’s Overview is to give a basic understanding of each application or process available. This overview should be 5-8 minutes maximum.ANYTHING IN RED NEEDS TO BE CHANGED TO FIT THE SURFACE TREATMENT THAT YOU ARE WORKING ON.Slides with “Permanent” will be the same for all presentations and should not be changed.
3Introduction to Thin Maintenance Overlays What are thin maintenance overlays ?Why use thin maintenance overlays ?When to use thin maintenance overlays ?Where to use thin maintenance overlays ?May want to include Module numbers for each section.
4What Are Thin Maintenance Overlays? Defined as thin treatment using a hot mix systemNon-structural layerApplied as a maintenance treatment (corrective or preventive)Thickness:Caltrans: 1.2 in (30 mm)Nationally: less than 1½ in (37.5mm)
5What Are Thin Maintenance Overlays? a) Dense Gradedb) Gap Gradedc) Open Graded
6Why Use Thin Overlays?Restores the surface conditions (smoothness, noise, and skid)Improves the appearance of the roadwayExtends the life of the pavement
7I-77 Columbia, SC Dry, Oxidized, Slightly Rutted Pavement, 60,000 ADT When to Use?Structurally sound pavementRut depth < 1/2”Minor cracking crackingMinor to moderate bleedingRaveled surface
8When NOT to use! Poor Candidates High Severity Block CrackingWhen NOT to use! Poor CandidatesHigh Severity Alligator CrackingRutting >1/2”High Severity “D” Cracking
9Where to Use?As a surface treatment over asphalt concrete pavements and on portland cement concrete pavementsOver structurally sound pavementsOxidation Reduction: Successfully used as a protection layer to prevent asphalt aging in the main structural layers.Mitigation of Cracking: Thin Overlays can be used to mitigate cracking. Dense-graded overlays required a SAMI or fabric interlayer.Skid Resistance: Use in sections with poor frictional properties. A skid test should be conducted to determine the existing coefficient of friction of the pavement surface (CT 342).
10Where to Use? Open- and Gap-Graded Overlays Wet Weather Accidents: Use in sections with high frequency of wet weather accidents or when recommended to minimize wet weather accident occurrences.
11End Overview Begin Project Design, Materials & Specifications This has to be a separate title slide. Use template from slide.Request to change color red to something else.Request to have a closing slide (i.e., thanks any questions, etc.)
13Topics to be covered Project Selection Design Considerations Distress and Other Application ConsiderationsPerformanceCostDesign ConsiderationsMobilizationTypical Materials ItemsQuantity CalculationsProduction RatesRoadway WidthsRoadway GeometryTraffic ControlMiscellaneous ItemsSample ProjectMaterials and Specifications (including SSP’s)SummaryRequest to include cost as another item.Possibly include cost in Project Cost. Keep in mind cost changing. Possibly adding date to this information. What is the normal cost, night cost, and etc. Need to get cost from local agencies (MTC).Re-number training Modules. This should be a treatment module 2.Delete first two lines.Training Module 1: Design, Materials & Specifications - Technical Training
15Factors to Consider When Choosing a Maintenance Treatment Will the treatment address the distresses present? (i.e., Will it work?)Can the required preparation for the treatment be carried out?Is the treatment affordable and cost effective?Will the treatment be performed before the situation being addressed changes?
16Three Basic Steps In The Selection Process Assess the existing conditions.Determine the feasible treatment options.Analyze and compare the feasible options with each other.
17Initial Site Assessment – Distress Identification Types of Distresses and DefinitionsDefinitions from Caltrans Pavement condition survey manual or the FHWA“DISTRESS IDENTIFICATION MANUAL for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program”PUBLICATION NO.FHWA-RDJUNE 2003
20Distress Types and Levels that can be addressed by Thin Overlays Perform Visual Site Inspection.Identify types, quantity and levels of distressFor example on a 2 lane highway (Route xxx from PM 0.0 to PM 10.8)with <30,000 ADT:10% Alligator B CrackingMinor Transverse CrackingAn area of isolated base failure 1000 ft x 4 ftHeavy raveling and oxidationRutting < ½”
21DISTRESS AND APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS TMO is a viable application for treating structurally sound, worn pavementsCrackingPatching/PotholesSurfaceDeformationSurface DefectsLongitudinal & Transverse (Medium)Block (Moderate)Edge (Moderate)Patches:ModeratePotholes:Rutting: <0.5 in (12.5 mm)Shoving: NoBleedingPolished Agg:OKRaveling:Severe
22Other Application Considerations Traffic ControlSafetyNight WorkReturns/Hand WorkTurn PocketsMillingJob QuantitiesPrep Work RequiredQuick return to traffic- Reduced Work Zone Time (Workers’ Safety)Noise Reduction- Open/Gap Graded MixNight Work- Min Temp 45º F (More working days)Reduced Backspray- Open/Gap Graded MixHigh Volume Roadways- Faster Paving Process (Get In- Get Out)
23Performance Expectations Life and CostingImproved skid resistanceReduced traffic noise (Open-Graded)Spray Reduction (Open Graded)Improved ride quality (Smoothness)Preventive Maintenance Activities Recommended
24Application Cost and Life Cycle Data (from Handout) Expected Life andCost Data fromStrategy SelectionGroupNeed to include handout from Gary H.
25Improved Ride Quality -(Smoothness) Minor ruts and depressions can be filled with Thin Maintenance Overlays to improve ride quality
26Future Maintenance Activities Recommended Crack SealingPatchingRe-StripingChanged Preventive to Future.
28Mobilization Typical Asphalt Paving On-site Staging Required – Rubberized Asphalt Binder will require additional equipment for its productionOn-site Staging Required –Area for Tanker and Distributor exchange
29Typical Materials Items Asphalt Concrete TonsUse maximum lbs/SY for selected aggregate size3/8” PMA OG or GG (9.5mm) = 85 lbs/SY½” PMA OG or GG (12.5mm) = 100 lbs/SY3/8” AR OG of GG (9.5mm) = 85 lbs/SYEmulsion TonsUse 0.2 gallons/SY for emulsion application
30Quantity Calculations Lane Mile (LM) (Centerline to Fog Line)5280 ft x 12 ft = 63,360 SF = 7040 SYWhen calculating quantities, application should extend beyond fog lineShoulder quantities need to be calculated independentlyShoulder application may vary from mainline applicationTypical Shoulder calculation:3 ft wide x 5280 ft length = 15,840 SF = 1760 SYTypical 2 Lane Roadway Calculation(2 x 7040) + (2 x 1760) = 17,600 SYNeed to verify fog line. One or two words.
31Quantity Calculations When calculating quantities for each application use highest application rate per SY for estimate purposesExample:Specification Spreading of screenings for chip seal application. Range is lb per SY. Use 20 lb for estimating quantitiesRequest to reword the first bullet item.
32Production Rates and Paving Days Mainline Paving tons per hourReturns/Turnpockets tons per hour(# of Paving Days)Minimum 5 days to make cost effective
33Roadway Geometry and Widths UrbanMillingcontour edge grind required to match curb and gutter and existing pavementDrainageMinimal water trapped against curb due to emulsion filling void structure and thin liftLess water intrusion to pavement interface due to emulsion membraneRuralCross-slopesShoulderGenerally best used for Travel Lane with 1 foot beyond fog lineFor Grade differential greater than 2% from Mainline to Shoulder, the shoulder must be paved separately in order to maintain the gradeEdge drop-off will be less than ¾” (consider bicycle traffic material can not be feather down lower then top size agg.)Varying WidthTypical Paving machine width 8-14 feet variableUnder Rural moved the first bullet item to shoulder.Recommendation change to two slides one for Urban and one for Rural.
34Traffic Control Typical release to traffic 10-20 minutes behind paver Multi-lane highways, consider moving lane closureTwo-lane roadways ½ to ¾ mile closureThinner lift allows faster productionComments to change photo to match traffic control.
35Miscellaneous Items Edge grinding Crack seal hot applied min one month priorPatching - hot mix only, cold mix continues to rutUtilities – Adjustments most likely necessaryLoops may need to be replaced if doing edge grindingDig Outs – Prior to pavingSigning and StripingDeleted the word will and included may to the fifth bullet item.
37PG Grade Specs Binder Climatic Region Conventional Asphalt Rubberized AsphaltOpen GradedGap GradedPGPBA(1)South CoastCentral CoastInland Valleys64-106a64-16North CoastLow MountainSouth MountainHigh MountainHigh Desert64-2858-22Desert70-106a (mod)May need to change photo on this slide.Need to update binder grade GGB1 to PG… Need to speak to Scott’s with information.
38Polymer Modified Binders Binder GradeGeneral Climatic RegionCriteriaGGB1(PG )Desert or Hot Valley Areas and Coastal AreasAreas below 1,050 m (3,445 ft) elevation with average 7-day maximum and 1-day minimum pavement temperatures between 70C and -22C (158F and -8F), respectively.GGB2(PG )Coastal AreasAreas below 1,050 m (3,445 ft) elevation with average 7-day maximum and 1-day minimum pavement temperatures between 64C and -22C (147F and -8F), respectively.GGB3(PG )Cool Coastalor Mountain AreasAreas below 1,500 m (4,920 ft) and above 1,050 m (3,445 ft) elevation with average 7-day maximum and 1-day minimum pavement temperatures between 64C and -28C (147F and -18F), respectively.GGB4(PG )Mountain AreasAreas above 1,500 m (4,920 ft) elevation with average 7-day maximum and 1-day minimum pavement temperatures between 58C and -34C (136F and -29F), respectively.May need to change photo on this slide.Need to update binder grade GGB1 to PG… Need to speak to Scott’s with information.Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide Chapter 8 Page 2
39Specification Designation Polymer Modified Binder TestingSpecification DesignationTest MethodGGB Grades1234Flash Point, Cleveland Open Cup, ˚C, min., original binderAASHTO T48230Brookfield Viscosity, max. 2.0 Pa s test temperature, ˚CASTM D 4402135Elastic Recovery after RTFO test % minAASHTO T60Mass Loss after RTFO test, % maxAASHTO T2400.6Dynamic Shear, G*/sin˚, min. 2.2 kPa RTFO aged residue, test temperature at 10 rad/sec, ˚CCalifornia Test 381 Part 3706458Residue from PAV, test temperature, ˚CAASHTO TP1-98110100Creep Stiffness, 300 MPa, Max. and M-value, 0.30, Min. residue from PAV, test temperature ˚C-12-18-24Report OnlyDynamic Shear, SSD > 30 x (0.6 + SSV)3 original binder, ˚CCalifornia Test 381 Part 125Dynamic Shear, SSD > -115 x (SSV) On PAV aged residue, from AASHTO PP1, ˚CModify GGB Grades information.Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide Chapter 8 Page 3
40Rubberized BindersA paving asphalt blended with a crumb rubber modifierShall conform to :SSP (Type G)SSP (Type D-MD)SSP (Type G-MB)SSP (Type D)SSP (Type O)Out of order slide.
41Aggregate Gradations with PMA Dense Graded:¾” Maximum, Coarse and Medium½” Maximum, Coarse and Medium3/8” MaximumNo. 4 MaximumOpen Graded½” MaximumOut of order slide. Scott and Scott needs to consider order of slides for gradation.Change english units first.
42Aggregate Gradations with PMA Gap Graded:¾” Maximum½” MaximumOut of order slide. Scott and Scott needs to consider order of slides for gradation.Change english units first.
43¾” Gradation Table for Gap Graded Overlays Aggregate Grading RequirementsPercentage Passing, ¾ inch MaximumSieve SizesLimits of ProposedGradationOperating RangeContract Compliance1” (25 mm)—100¾” (19 mm)90‑10090-100½” (12.5 mm)83-87X5X73/8” (9.5 mm)65-70No 4 (4.75 mm)33-37No 8 (2.36 mm)18-22X4No 30 (600 µm)8-12No 200 (75 µm)2-70-8
44Aggregate Physical Properties Polymer Modified Asphalt TestCalifornia TestAsphalt Concrete TypeOpen Graded Asphalt ConcreteABPercentage of Crushed Particles:Coarse Aggregate (Min.)Fine Aggregate Passing No 4, Retained on No 8 (Min)20590%70%25%20%Los Angeles Rattler:Loss at 100 Rev. (Max)Loss at 500 Rev. (Max)21110%45%-50%40%Sand Equivalent:Contract Compliance (Min)Operating Range (Min)21747504245Film stripping (Max)302Kc Factor (Max)3031.7Kf Factor (Max)
45Aggregate for use with Rubberized Asphalt Concrete The aggregate for rubberized asphalt concrete (Type O) shall conform to the 9.5 mm maximum grading conforming to the provisions in Section 39‑2.02, "Aggregate," of the Standard Specifications.The aggregate for rubberized asphalt concrete (Type O) shall be lime treated in conformance with the specifications.Out of order slide.
46Gap Graded AR Aggregate Grading Requirements PERCENTAGE PASSING, ½” (12.5 MM) MAXIMUMSieve SizeLimits of Proposed GradationOperating RangeContract Compliance19‑mm—10012.5‑mm90-1009.5‑mm83-87X±5X±74.75‑mm33-372.36‑mm18-22X±4600‑µm8-1275‑µm2-70-8
47Aggregate Physical Properties For Rubberized Gap Graded Mix The aggregate for Type G rubberized asphalt concrete shall conform to the following grading and shall meet the quality provisions specified for Type A asphalt concrete in Section 39‑2.02, "Aggregate," of the Standard Specifications, except as follows:A. California Test 211, Los Angeles Rattler loss at 500 revolutions shall be 40 percent maximum.B.California Test 205, Section D, definition of a crushed particle is revised as follows: "A particle having 2 or more fresh mechanically fractured faces shall be considered a crushed particle."C.The swell and moisture vapor susceptibility requirements shall not apply.The symbol "X" in the following table is the gradation which the Contractor proposes to furnish for the specific sieve.
48Open Graded Aggregate Gradations with AR or PMA Gradation, Maximum 12.5 mm (½ inch)PERCENTAGE PASSING, 12.5 MM MAXIMUMSieve SizesLimits of ProposedGradationOperating RangeContract Compliance¾” (19 mm)—100½” (12.5 mm)95‑10092-1003/8” (9.5 mm)78-89X4X7No. 4 (4.75 mm)28‑37No. 8 (2.36 mm)7-18X5No. 16 (1.18 mm)0-100-13No. 200 (75 µm)0-30-4Make two slidesRef: Caltrans Standard Specifications 2006 Section 39 Page 282
49Open Graded Aggregate Gradations with AR or PMA Gradation, Maximum 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) (1)PERCENTAGE PASSING, 9.5 MM MAXIMUMSieve SizesLimits of ProposedGradationOperating RangeContract Compliance½” (12.5 mm)—1003/8” (9.5 mm)90‑10088-100No. 4 (4.75 mm)29‑36X4X7No. 8 (2.36 mm)7-18X5No. 16 (1.18 mm)0-100-12No. 200 (75 µm)0-30-4Make two slidesRef: Caltrans Standard Specifications 2006 Section 39 Page 282
50Mix Design for Polymer Modified HMA The performance of a bonded wearing course depends on the quality of the materials and how they interact during application, rolling and after opening to traffic. The amount of polymer modified asphalt binder to be mixed with the aggregate for gap-graded polymer modified asphalt concrete shall be determined by the Contractor using Asphalt Institute MS 2 Table 6.1.
51Rubberized Type O Mix Design The amount of asphalt‑rubber binder to be mixed with the aggregate for rubberized asphalt concrete (Type O) shall be determined by California Test 368 with the following exceptions:The aggregate shall be mixed with PG paving asphalt and the optimum bitumen content shall be determined in conformance with the test procedure.The optimum binder content for rubberized asphalt concrete Type O shall then be determined using the following formula:OBC2 = (OBC1) x 1.20 where:OBC1 = Optimum bitumen content using Pg paving asphaltOBC2 = Optimum bitumen content using asphalt‑rubber binderChanged 0 to O.
52Rubberized Gap -Graded Mix Design SCOTT METCALF TO SUPPLY!!!!!Changed 0 to O.
53End Project Design, Materials & Specifications Begin Construction Inspection This has to be a separate title slide. Use template from slide.Request to change color red to something else.Request to have a closing slide (i.e., thanks any questions, etc.)
54Construction and Inspection Module 10-2Construction and InspectionFrom… Maintenance TechnicalAdvisory Guide (MTAG)Change to specific Surface Treatment
55Topics to be covered Understand/Review Specifications Safety and Traffic ControlSWPPPSurface PreparationEquipment RequirementsCalibrationsApproved Mix designSampling and TestingBinderMixEmulsionMix Production and HandlingRequired Application ConditionsApplication of MaterialsProduction RatesRoadway Geometry and Paving WidthsApplication Problems and SolutionsTraining Module 2 : Construction and Inspection - Technical Training
56Understand/Review Specifications Review Construction Manual Chapter 4Section 94 emulsion (emulsion membrane)Section 39 Asphalt Concrete (mix and placement)Review RE file notesProject special provisionsHeader corrections throughout rest of document.
57Safety and Traffic Control Traffic control is required both for the safety of the traveling public and the personnel performing the work. It is also used to ensure the new surface is compacted and allowed to cool to below 70°C (158°F) prior to reopening the surface to traffic.Traffic control includes placing construction signs, construction cones and/or barricades, flag personnel, and pilot cars required to direct traffic clear of the maintenance operation.
58Traffic Control Typical release to traffic 10-20 minutes behind paver Multi-lane highways, consider moving lane closureTwo-lane roadways ½ to ¾ mile closureThinner lift allows faster productionEmulsion Membrane eliminates need for Tack CoatMay need to change picture.
59OPENING TO TRAFFICTraffic can be allowed onto the new surface once rolling is completed and the mix temperature has fallen below 70°C (158°F).Typically, no post sweeping is required unless the mix begins to ravel.
60SWPPPReview the storm water requirements for the project. Any questions should be directed to the construction storm water coordinator.
61Surface PreparationCracks greater than 6 mm wide (1/4 in) should be filled or sealed prior to applicationThe use of over-banding methods of crack sealing is not recommended for this treatmentManhole covers, drains, grates, catch basins, and other utility services must be covered prior to application with roofing paper or equivalentAny surface irregularities deeper than 25 mm (1 in) should be filled with dense graded hot mix before applying the mix.Prior to application, the pavement should be swept with a rotary broom equipped with metal or nylon broom stock.
62CRACK PREPARATION & MATERIAL APPLICATION PROCESS Sterilize Weeds 3 weeks priorRemove WeedsGrind out weedsBlow out Cracks(If moisture exists) Heat Lancecracks to remove moistureNeed to rework this slide. Need to speak to Scott and scott.Material ApplicationApply sealer in cracks
68Construction Entrance Not Swept Prior to Mix Application
69Miscellaneous Items Edge grinding Crack seal hot applied min one month priorPatching - hot mix only, cold mix continues to rutUtilities – AdjustmentsLoopsDig Outs – Prior to pavingSigning and Striping
70Equipment Requirements The most significant requirement is that the binder application and hot mix spreading function are combined into a single unit.HMAMembrane
71Spray Paver Calibration Procedure 1. Once proper nozzles sizes have been selected, make sure all nozzles are clean and working.2. Measure pad width and length to the nearest 0.1 of an inch and record.3. Weigh calibration pads to the nearest 0.1g and record.4. Place plastic container on balance. Either record the weight of the plastic container or zero out the weight of the plastic container.5. Place calibration pads a minimum of 5 feet in front of the emulsion spray bar in the direction of travel. Use two calibration pads to get an average representative distribution. Place the second pad a minimum of 1 foot behind the first pad.6. Make sure the emulsion pump and bar pressure is set to optimal manufactures operating range.Need to rework this slide. What’s the intent? This data should be in handout, so need to be specific items of need for calibration proedure.
72Spray Paver Calibration Procedure (Cont.) 7. Engage the paver in automatic mode and allow the paver to come up to full paving speed before passing over the calibration pads.8. Once the spray bars has passed over the calibration pads, carefully fold the edges of the calibration pads towards the center and roll the pad up so no emulsion will be lost when picked up.9. Bring the plastic container to the calibration pad and place the pad in the container.10. Record weight of the calibration pads.11. It will be necessary to clean the plastic container before the second calibration pad is weighed or the weight of the plastic container will have to be re-zeroed as emulsion from the first pad will increase the weight of the container.Need to rework this slide. What’s the intent? This data should be in handout, so need to be specific items of need for calibration proedure.
77Sampling and Testing Required California Test July 2002METHODS FOR SAMPLING HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS USED IN THE ROADWAY STRUCTURAL SECTIONSASPHALT CONCRETEAggregates Part 1, Sections 1-2Asphalt Part 6, Sections 1-3Modified Asphalt Concrete Part 7, Section 4BITUMINOUS SEALPolymer Modified Asphalt Emulsion . Part 6, Section 4Two slides1) Sampling2) TestingMay want to include reference to Caltrans SSP
78Required Application Conditions May be applied on damp, but not wet, surfaces.Minimum air and pavement temperature requirements are 7°C (45°F) and rising, although it is recommended that the surface temperature be above 15°C (59°F).No freezing conditions are allowed in the first 24 hours, the emulsion-based tack coat requires about one day to fully cure.
79Construction Rolling operation showing traffic control. Trimming necessary. No overlap during construction due to emulsion membrane.
80ApplicationA minimum of one steel drum tandem roller is required for compacting the mix.Rollers must be operated in static mode only.Usually two passes using a 12 to 15 ton roller is sufficient to properly seat the aggregates.Rolling must be carried out before the temperature, at mid layer of the mix, falls below 90°C (194°F).
81Production Rates and Paving Days Mainline Paving tons per hourReturns/Turnpockets tons per hour
82Roadway Geometry and Widths UrbanMilling¾ - 1” contour edge grind required to match curb and gutter and existing pavementDrainageMinimal water trapped against curb due to emulsion filling void structure and thin liftLess water intrusion to pavement interface due to emulsion membraneRuralCross-slopesShoulderGenerally best used for Travel Lane with 1 foot beyond fog lineFor Grade differential greater than 2% from Mainline to Shoulder, the shoulder must be paved separately in order to maintain the gradeEdge drop-off will be less than ¾” (consider bicycle traffic material cant not be feather down lower then top size agg.)Varying WidthTypical Paving machine width 8-14 feet variableMoved the first bullet item for shoulder from Cross-slopes.
83Application Problems and Solutions SurfaceWavesEnsure the head of material in front of the paver screed is at the correct height and does not fluctuate (i.e., rise and fall).Ensure the screed is not worn or set incorrectly.Ensure the mix is not too stiff or has not fallen below 275F (135C).Ensure the dump trucks do not bump the paving unit as this can cause long frequency waves resulting in increased pavement roughness.Ensure grade control equipment (if in use) is functioning properlyWash BoardingSlow roller down.
84Application Problems and Solutions TearingEnsure the paving unit is being operated correctly.Ensure the mix is not too cold (i.e., below 275F (135C)) or too stiff.May be fixed by adjusting the degree of crown and ensuring mix temperature is correct.Ensure application is not too thinNon UniformTexture-SegregationEnsure the mixture is not separating in the hopper or during transportation.Ensure the paving unit is set up properly.Ensure the mix temperature is at least 275F (135C).Check the mix design for poor grading. Adjust if necessary.
85Application Problems and Solutions Screed MarksEnsure the paving unit is set up correctly and that the screed in not worn or dirty.Ensure the mix temperature is at least 275F (135C).Check the mix design for poor grading. Adjust if necessary.Ensure mix is in specification.Roller Checking & MarksEnsure the roller does not cause a wave in the mat in front of the roller (i.e., mix too hot). Wait until the mix cools further.Check the mix design for too much asphalt in the mix, or too much middle size sand in the gradation. Adjust design if necessary.
86Application Problems and Solutions Bleeding &Fat SpotsEnsure the mix temperature is not too hot (greater than 351F (177C).Check the mix design for too much asphalt or for too coarse an aggregate grading. Adjust design if necessary.Ensure there is no moisture in the mix or on the pavement.Ensure the tack coat application rate is not too high for the surface to which it is applied. Tight, smooth surface require less tack coat than do more open surfaces. Reduce application rate on existing surfaces that exhibit bleeding.Ensure spray bar equipment is operating properly.Ensure aggregates are dry before mixing with asphalt in the hot mix plant, that pavement is not bleeding, that pavement is dry, and that mix is correctly designed for traffic and aggregate.DelaminationEnsure adequate tack coat is applied.Ensure the mix is above minimum application temperature (275F (135C)).Ensure the mix is not below the minimum compaction temperature (194F (90C)).Ensure the existing pavement surface temperature is above the minimum (i.e., 45F (7C)) before paving.Ensure the surface is cleaned immediately before paving.Ensure roller drums are not dirty and have working spray systems.
87Application Problems and Solutions Poor Transverse JointsEnsure butt joints are properly constructed.Poor Longitudinal JointsEnsure proper joint construction practices are followed, especially when compacting thin layers.Excessive RavelEnsure the mix design meets project specifications, particularly that the mix contains sufficient binder.Ensure compaction is carried out above the minimum temperature (i.e., 194F (90C)).Roadmap for each treatment is needed. (Written instructions)Time frame be included.Need closing slide.