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PAVING MATERIALS MODULE 5 Pavement Design Terms and Concepts.

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Presentation on theme: "PAVING MATERIALS MODULE 5 Pavement Design Terms and Concepts."— Presentation transcript:

1 PAVING MATERIALS MODULE 5 Pavement Design Terms and Concepts

2 Technically, what is a pavement? “Black Top” or “Tarvy” ? “Black Top” or “Tarvy” ? “to “to pave” means “to cover with asphalt, gravel, concrete, macadam, etc.” A surface ?

3 Why build pavements? Originally, footpaths sufficed Originally, footpaths sufficed Increasing traffic and loads Increasing traffic and loads Transportation Transportation Quality Issues: drainage, subgrade materials Quality Issues: drainage, subgrade materials John Macadam, John Macadam,

4 5.01 Define the term pavement as it is given by the MTO's Pavement Design and Rehabilitation Manual. "Pavements are layered structures of selected and processed materials which have been designed to resist surficial wear, to support wheel loads and provide drainage of water." "Pavements are layered structures of selected and processed materials which have been designed to resist surficial wear, to support wheel loads and provide drainage of water."

5 PAVEMENT TYPES 5.02 Identify the various pavement types according to the following three classification methods: a) Surface Type b) Load Transmission c) Composition a) Surface Type: Bound or Unbound

6 b) Load Transmission FLEXIBLERIGID 40 kN Load Typical deflection signatures Stress is transmitted through bound surface layer to underlying granular layers Bound surface (slab) distributes stress over a broader area, thus reducing the amount of stress transmitted to underlying material

7 c) Composition: Type of materials used and arrangement/installation technique Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Portland Cement Concrete (PCC)

8 Asphalt Cement Concrete (Hot or Cold Mix) Asphalt Cement Concrete (Hot or Cold Mix)

9 Surface Treatment Surface Treatment

10 Mulch Mulch

11 5.03 Identify the 3 key components to a pavement structure. SURFACE SURFACE GRANULAR BASE GRANULAR BASE GRANULAR SUBBASE GRANULAR SUBBASE

12 5.04 List the 4 functions of bituminous surface materials. provides resistance to surface wear provides resistance to surface wear reduces surface water infiltration reduces surface water infiltration provides a smooth and rideable finish provides a smooth and rideable finish provides structural support to wheel loads provides structural support to wheel loads

13 5.05 Identify the two broad classes of asphalt pavement surfaces and give examples for each. MIX SYSTEMS Hot and Cold Mixed Asphaltic Concrete Hot and Cold Mixed Asphaltic Concrete Hot and Cold Mixed Stabilized Base Hot and Cold Mixed Stabilized Base Recycled Hot and Cold Mixed Asphaltic Concrete Recycled Hot and Cold Mixed Asphaltic Concrete Travel Plant Mixes (cold) Travel Plant Mixes (cold) Slurry Seal Slurry Seal

14 LAYERED SYSTEMS Penetration Primer Penetration Primer Surface Treatment Surface Treatment Macadam Macadam

15 5.06 Describe the materials and manufacture of Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete. Materials: a mixture of fine and coarse aggregate with asphalt cement a mixture of fine and coarse aggregate with asphalt cementManufacture: components are heated and mixed in a central plant components are heated and mixed in a central plant mixture is hauled to site in special trucks and placed on the road using an asphalt spreader mixture is hauled to site in special trucks and placed on the road using an asphalt spreader

16 Manufacture (Continued): designed, manufactured and placed within specified tolerances for use on high traffic volume roads designed, manufactured and placed within specified tolerances for use on high traffic volume roads5.07 Identify the use(s) of the following MTO designations: HL 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8; HL 3 Fine; HL 3, 4 and 8 Modified; Heavy Duty Binder; DFC; OFC; and Electrically Conductive Mix. These MTO mixes are described in Table 5.01 These MTO mixes are described in Table 5.01Table 5.01Table 5.01

17 5.08 Describe the materials and manufacture of Cold Mix Asphaltic Concrete. Materials: a mixture of emulsified asphalt or liquid (cutback) asphalt and aggregate a mixture of emulsified asphalt or liquid (cutback) asphalt and aggregateManufacture: components are mixed at ambient air temperature components are mixed at ambient air temperature can be mixed in a central plant or in-situ on the road surface with a travelling mixer such as the Midland Mix Paver or road mix mulch pavements can be mixed in a central plant or in-situ on the road surface with a travelling mixer such as the Midland Mix Paver or road mix mulch pavements

18 Manufacture (Continued): aggregate and emulsified asphalt are delivered to Midland Mix Paver separately and blended in a pug mill aggregate and emulsified asphalt are delivered to Midland Mix Paver separately and blended in a pug mill augers distribute mixture to a screed which uniformly controls the thickness of the cold mix layer augers distribute mixture to a screed which uniformly controls the thickness of the cold mix layer once the emulsified asphalt in the mixture surface starts to break or set, the mixture is compacted once the emulsified asphalt in the mixture surface starts to break or set, the mixture is compacted use in Ontario generally restricted to low volume rural roads, where HMAC surfaced pavements are not required use in Ontario generally restricted to low volume rural roads, where HMAC surfaced pavements are not required

19 5.09 Describe the materials used and general placement method for Surface Treatments. consist of an application of emulsified or liquid asphalt and select aggregate over a prepared granular base or existing surface

20 5.10 List the reasons for applying surface treatments to: a) granular road surfaces, and b) existing surface treatments or asphaltic concrete a) to control water infiltration, provide frictional resistance, improve ride quality & control dust and stone pick-up b) to restore frictional resistance and reduce water infiltration in general, on light to medium volume roads

21 5.11 Describe the materials/placement and primary application for: Mulch Pavements, Slurry Seals, Fog Seals, Primers, Tack Coats and Granular Seals. These treatments are described in Table 5.02 These treatments are described in Table 5.02Table 5.02Table 5.02

22 5.12 Identify the origin of asphalt cement and the MTO grade specifications (test and designations). the majority of asphalt cements come from petroleum distillation as do liquid (cutback) asphalts and asphalt emulsions (see next slide) the majority of asphalt cements come from petroleum distillation as do liquid (cutback) asphalts and asphalt emulsions (see next slide) MTO has graded asphalt cements by standard penetration number (PEN); eg: 85/100 (hardest), 150/200, 300/400, 500+ (softest) MTO has graded asphalt cements by standard penetration number (PEN); eg: 85/100 (hardest), 150/200, 300/400, 500+ (softest) SUPERPAVE is a new mix design method that replaces this grading system SUPERPAVE is a new mix design method that replaces this grading system

23 Atkins, 2 nd Ed.

24 5.13 Describe the 2 conflicting problems related to asphalt cement grade faced in Ontario. if a soft grade is used then rutting is a problem in the hot summers if a soft grade is used then rutting is a problem in the hot summers if a hard grade is used then low temperature (transverse) cracking is a problem in the winter if a hard grade is used then low temperature (transverse) cracking is a problem in the winter Before: After:


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