3Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s RootsPsychological Science is BornContemporary PsychologyPsychology’s Biggest QuestionPsychology’s Three Main Levels of AnalysisPsychology’s SubfieldsTips for Studying Psychology
6Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today.Wundt ( )Preview Question 1: What are some important milestones in the development of the science of psychology?
7Psychology’s RootsStructuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
8Psychology’s RootsFunctionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
9Psychological Science is Born James ( )Mary CalkinsAmerican philosopher William James wrote an important 1890 psychology textbook. Mary Calkins, James’s student, became the APA’s first female president.
10Psychological Science is Born Freud ( )Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.
11Psychological Science is Born Psychology originated in many disciplines and countries. It was, until the 1920s, defined as the science of mental life.
12Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct?Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?
13Psychological Science is Born We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings).
14Psychological Science Develops BehavioristsSkinner ( )Watson ( )Ivan Pavlov a Russian Physiologist, James Watson and Skinner were all instrumental in developing the science of psychology and emphasized behavior instead of mind or mental thoughts. From 1920 to 1960, psychology in the US was heavily oriented towards behaviorism.Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology.Psychology 7e in Modules
15Psychological Science Develops Humanistic PsychologyMaslow ( )Rogers ( )Maslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance.Psychology 7e in Modules
16Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Biggest QuestionPsychology’s Three Main Levels of AnalysisPsychology’s SubfieldsCLOSE-UP: Tips for Studying PsychologyPreview Question 2: What is psychology’s historic big issue?
17Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis Preview Question 3: What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related perspectives?
18Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsNeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions?How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes?How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences?To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?Although debates arise among the psychologists working from differing perspectives, each point of view addresses important questions.Psychology 7e in Modules
19Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsPsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts?How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?BehavioralHow we learn observable responses?How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
20Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsCognitiveHow we encode, process, store and retrieve information?How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?Social-culturalHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?How are we — as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
21Psychology’s Subfields: Basic Research PsychologistWhat she doesBiologicalExplore the links between brain and mind.DevelopmentalStudy changing abilities from womb to tomb.CognitiveStudy how we perceive, think, and solve problems.PersonalityInvestigate our persistent traits.SocialExplore how we view and affect one another.Preview Question 4: What are some of psychology’s main subfields?
22Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Research PsychologistWhat she doesClinicalStudies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disordersCounselingHelps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.EducationalStudies and helps individuals in school and educational settingsIndustrial/OrganizationalStudies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
23Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy. Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients.
24Tips for Studying Psychology Your study of psychology can help teach you how to ask and answer important questions.Preview Question 5: How can psychological principles help you as a student?
25Tips for Studying Psychology People learn and remember best when they put material in their own words, rehearse it, and then review and rehearse it again. The SQ3R study method incorporates these principles (Robinson, 1970). SQ3R is an acronym for its five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.
26Tips for Studying Psychology Psychology can teach you how to ask and answer important questions.Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse and Review (SQ3R)Survey: What you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads.Question: Ask questions. Make notes.Read: Look for the answer to your questions by reading a manageable amount at a time.Rehearse: Recall what you’ve read in your own words. Test yourself with quizzes.Review: What you learn. Read over notes and quickly review the whole chapter.Preview Question 18: How can psychological principles help you as a student?Psychology 7e in Modules
27One of Psychology’s Big Questions Nature versus NurtureThe controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience.Preview Question 2: What is psychology’s historic big issue?Nurture works on what nature endows.Psychology 7e in Modules
28Constructing Theories A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.Preview Question 3: How do psychologists use the scientific method to construct theories?
29People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed. HypothesisA hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.
31Operational Definitions As a check on their biases, psychologists report their research with precise operational definitions of procedures and concepts.Hunger, for example, might be defined as “hours without eating.”Using carefully worded statements, other researchers can replicate (repeat) the originalobservations.
32Psychology’s Roots Empiricism knowledge comes from experience via the sensesscience investigates through observation and experimentShow me
33Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet.Preview Question 1: Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense?
34OverconfidenceSometimes we think we know more than we actually know.AnagramHow long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams?WREATWATERETYRNENTRYPeople said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).GRABEBARGE
35The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).Courtesy of the James Randi Education FoundationPreview Question 2: What attitudes characterize scientific inquiry, and what does it mean to thinkcritically?The Amazing Randi
36The Scientific Attitude Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly.It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.
37The Scientific MethodPsychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.
38DescriptionPsychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation
39DescriptionSurveytechnique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peopleusually by questioning a representative, random sample of people
40Wording can change the results of a survey. Wording EffectsWording can change the results of a survey.Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)
41Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population – the whole group you want to study – has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid.
54CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.Preview Question 5: What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but not cause-effect explanation?
55Correlation and Causation Correlation does not mean causation!or
56Disconfirming evidence Illusory CorrelationAn illusory correlation occurs is the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Parents conceive children after adoption.Confirming evidenceDisconfirming evidenceDo notadoptAdoptDo not conceiveConceiveMichael Newman Jr./ Photo Edit
57Given random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns. Order in Random EventsGiven random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns.Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.
58Order in Random EventsGiven large numbers of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order.Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco ChronicleAngelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day.
59Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Researchers can isolate cause and effect with an experiment.Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control.Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.Preview Question 6: How do experiments, powered by random assignment, clarify cause and effect?
60Double-blind Procedure Evaluating TherapiesDouble-blind ProcedureIn evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment.
61Random AssignmentAssigning participants to experimental (breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.
62Independent VariableAn independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable.Preview Question 7: What are the independent and dependent variables, and how do they differ?
63Dependent VariableA dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process.For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable.
65Comparing Research Methods Below is a comparison of different research methods.
66Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.Preview Question 8: Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?
67Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? FAQQ2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same. Biology determines our sex, and culture further bends the genders. However, in many ways woman and man are similarly human.Preview Question 9: Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?Ami Vitale/ Getty Images
69Q4. Is it ethical to experiment on people? FAQQ4. Is it ethical to experiment on people?Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out.Preview Question 11: Is it ethical to experiment on people?