Presentation on theme: "How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?"— Presentation transcript:
1How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? The Scientific MethodDescriptionCorrelationExperimentation
2Psychology’s Roots Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) “The soul is not separable from the body, and the same holds good of particular parts of the soul.” Aristotle, De Anima, 350 B.C.Aristotle, a naturalist and philosopher, theorized about psychology’s concepts. He suggested that the soul and body are not separate and that knowledge grows from experience.
3Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today.Structuralism- used introspectionWundt ( )Preview Question 1: How has psychology’s focus changed over time?
4Functionalism William James- Father of “modern psychology” chapter 1FunctionalismWilliam James- Father of “modern psychology”Early approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousnessInterested in how and why something happens- predecessor to behaviorismFunctionalists broadened field of psychology to include the study of children, animals, religious experiences, and stream of consciousness
5Psychological Science is Born Freud ( )Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.
6chapter 1PsychoanalysisA theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund FreudEmphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
7The biological perspective chapter 1The biological perspectivePsychological approach that focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughtsThis perspective involvesHormonesBrain chemistryHeredityEvolutionary influences
8Psychological Science Develops BehavioristsSkinner ( )Watson ( )Ivan Pavlov a Russian Physiologist, James Watson and Skinner were all instrumental in developing the science of psychology and emphasized behavior instead of mind or mental thoughts. From 1920 to 1960, psychology in the US was heavily oriented towards behaviorism.Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt- observable- behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology.
9The cognitive perspective chapter 1The cognitive perspectivePsychological approach that emphasizes what goes on in people’s headsThis perspective involvesBehaviorismSocial-cognitive learning theories
10Psychological Science Develops Humanistic PsychologyMaslow ( )Rogers ( )Maslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance.
11chapter 1Humanist psychologyPsychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding of behaviorThis approachRejected behaviorism and psychoanalysisEmphasized creativity and achieving potential
12The sociocultural perspective chapter 1The sociocultural perspectivePsychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the individualThis perspective involvesSocial psychology or the study of rules, roles, groups, and relationshipsCultural psychology or the study of cultural norms, values, and expectations
13The biopsychosocial approach Psychology TodayWe define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings).The best of psychology takes a combined approach to looking at any given phenomenon-The biopsychosocial approach
15Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsNeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions?How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes?How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences?To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?Although debates arise among the psychologists working from differing perspectives, each point of view addresses important questions.
16Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsPsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts?How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?BehavioralHow we learn observable responses?How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
17Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsCognitiveHow we encode, process, store and retrieve information?How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?Social-culturalHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?How are we — as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
18Psychology’s Subfields: Research PsychologistWhat she doesBiologicalExplore the links between brain and mind.DevelopmentalStudy changing abilities from womb to tomb.CognitiveStudy how we perceive, think, and solve problems.PersonalityInvestigate our persistent traits.SocialExplore how we view and affect one another.
19Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy.Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients.
20Four Big Ideas in Psychology Critical Thinking is Smart ThinkingBehavior is a Biopsychosocial Event3. We Operate with a Two-Track Mind (Dual Processing)4. Psychology Explores Human Strengths as Well as ChallengesPreview Question 3: What four big ideas run through this book?
21Why Do Psychology?How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions?The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do!
22What About Intuition & Common Sense? Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature.Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error.Example: Personal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants.Preview Question 4: Why are the answers reached by thinking critically more reliable than ordinary common sense?
23Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome.Example: We only knew the dot.com stocks (housing market) would plummet after they actually did plummet.“Anything seems commonplace, once explained.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes.Two phenomena – hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence – illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense.
24Overconfidence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know. AnagramHow long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams?WREATWATERETYRNENTRYPeople said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).GRABEBARGE
25Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.Courtesy of the James Randi Education FoundationThe Amazing Randi
26Critical thinking guidelines chapter 1Critical thinking guidelinesAsk questionsDefine your termsExamine the evidenceAnalyze assumptions and biasesAvoid emotional reasoningDon’t oversimplifyConsider other interpretationsTolerate uncertainty
27How Do Psychologists Ask & Answer Questions? Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.Preview Question 6: How do psychologists construct theories?
28For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression. TheoryA theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.
29People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed. HypothesisA hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.
30Research Observations Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. Individuals who score low on a self-esteem test and high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis.
32Is language uniquely human? DescriptionCase StudyA technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.Preview Question 7: What three techniques do psychologists use to observe and describe behavior?Susan Kuklin/ Photo ResearchersIs language uniquely human?
33chapter 1Descriptive methodsMethods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily causal explanationsIncludeCase studiesObservational studiesPsychological testsSurveys
34chapter 1Case studiesA detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated, which may be used to formulate broader research hypothesesMost commonly used by clinicians; occasionally used by researchers
35Observational studies Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavior without interfering with behaviorNaturalistic observationPurpose is to observe how people or animals behave in their natural environments.Laboratory observationPurpose is to observe how people or animals behave in a more controlled setting.
36SurveysQuestionnaires and interviews that ask people about experiences, attitudes, or opinionsRequires a representative sampleGroup of subjects, selected from the population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sexPopular polls and surveys rely on volunteers
37Wording can change the results of a survey. Wording EffectsWording can change the results of a survey.Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)
38Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid.The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
39Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation describe behaviors.They are difficult to replicate therefore cannot be used as evidence to prove a psychological theory
40Correlational studyA descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomenaCorrelationA statistical measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.Correlational coefficients can range from 0.0 – 1.0.
41(positive or negative) CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37Preview Question 8: Why do correlations permit prediction but not explanation, and what is an illusory correlation?Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)
42Direction of correlations Positive correlationsAn association between increases in one variable and increases in another, or decreases in one variable and decreases in the other.Negative correlationsAn association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
43Correlation and Causation Correlation does not mean causation!or
44Explaining correlations chapter 1Explaining correlationsStart with three variables (X, Y, Z)X might cause YY might cause XX might be correlated with Y, which alone causes ZCorrelations show patterns, not causes.Illusory Correlation The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Examples…
45Given random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns. Order in Random EventsGiven random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns.Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.
46Exploring Cause and Effect ExperimentationExploring Cause and EffectLike other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.Preview Question 9: How do experiments clarify or reveal cause-effect relationships?
47Exploring Cause & Effect Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control.Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.
48Double-blind Procedure Evaluating TherapiesDouble-blind ProcedureIn evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment.
49Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental (breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.
50chapter 1Variables of interestIndependent variables Variables the experimenter manipulatesDependent variables Variables the experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable(s)
51Independent VariableAn independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable.
52Dependent VariableA dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process.For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable.
53chapter 1An experimentA controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.An experiment includes variables of interest, control conditions, and random assignment.
55chapter 1Your turnAn experimenter wants to study the effects of music on studying. He has some students study while listening to music and others study in silence, and then compares their test scores. What is the independent variable in this experiment?1. The students2. The presence of music while studying3. The kind of music4. The test scores
56Below is a comparison of different research methods.
57chapter 1Control conditionsIn an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition.In some experiments, the control group is given a placebo, an inactive substance or fake treatment.
58chapter 1Random assignmentFor experiments to have experimental and control groups composed of similar subjects, random assignment should be used.Each individual participating in the study has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group.
59chapter 1Experimenter effectsUnintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter.Strategies for preventing experimenter effects include single- and double-blind studies.
60Descriptive statistics chapter 1Descriptive statisticsStatistical procedures that organize and summarize research dataExamplesArithmetic meanStandard deviation
61Inferential statistics chapter 1Inferential statisticsStatistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are.The most commonly used inferential statistics are significance tests.Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance
62Choosing the best explanation chapter 1Choosing the best explanationInterpretation of results may depend on how the research was conducted.Cross-sectional studiesSubjects of different ages are compared at a single time.Longitudinal studiesSubjects are periodically assessed over a period of time.
63Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.Preview Question 10: How does research benefit from laboratory experiments?