2 Bell Ringer!Why did the British government see the need to begin taxing the colonies?What was the main reason why colonists resisted these taxes?What other issues did they have with the British in America?
3 Britain Imposes New Taxes The French and Indian War plunged Britain deeply into debt.Britain needs more revenueThe British Prime Minister, George Grenville, decided that the colonists should help pay off the post war debt. Grenville decided to use taxation on goods, such as sugar, to help cover the debt.
4 The Quartering Act (1765)Under this law, colonists had to provide candles, food, drinks, and a place to sleep for British soldiers stationed in their area.Cost saving measure for Britain
5 The Sugar ActGrenville persuaded Parliament to pass the Sugar Act (1764); which placed a heavy tax on molasses. As a result, colonists resorted to smuggling molasses into the colonies.
6 The Stamp ActIn 1765, Grenville persuaded Parliament to pass the Stamp Act. The act placed duties (taxes) on legal documents such as:Wills, Diplomas, ContractsMarriage papersNewspapers and AlmanacsPlaying Cards and Dice
8 The Bostonians Paying the Excise-Man, 1774 British propaganda print that depicts the tarring and feathering of Boston Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm. This was the second time Malcolm had been tarred and feathered.
9 “No Taxation without Representation” Colonists used this quote as a way to express their feelings on British taxes.The colonists wanted a voice in the British government (Parliament)Colonists were willing to pay taxes, but only the taxes that were passed by the colonies.No Taxation without Representation!!!
10 STAMP ACT CONGRESSOctober colonies sent delegates to a meeting in New YorkThe delegates created a petition to the king, rejecting the Stamp Act, Parliament had no right to tax the coloniesColonial merchants then created a boycott of all British goodsNo British Goods!
11 Petition and BoycottA petition is a formal written request to someone in authority, signed by a group of people.To boycott means to refuse to buy certain goods and services. In many cases, people boycott something in protest.
12 Repeal of the Stamp ActThe boycott worked and Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766!Parliament also passed the Declaratory Act giving them supreme authority to govern the colonies
13 THE TOWNSHEND ACTS(1767) Britain placed a tax on the following: GLASS PAPERLEADPAINTTEAThe duties were collected before the goods entered the colonies – Townshend thought this would anger the colonists less than a direct tax like the Stamp Act
14 Writs of AssistanceA legal document, used by British officials, to inspect or search a ship’s cargo without reason or justification.
15 The Sons of Liberty Secret society formed to oppose British policies This group of colonial protesters urges people to boycott British Goods.Staged protestsBurned stamped paper, attacked customs officialsLeader: Paul RevereFounder: Sam Adams
16 Calls for Protest! Anger that Britain was placing new taxes on them Argued that Writs of Assistance went against their basic rightsSerious threat to their rights and freedomBostonAnother boycott of British goods led by Samuel AdamsDaughters of Liberty join in and encourage colonists to weave their own cloth and use American productsBritish trade fell sharply
18 THE BOSTON MASSACREFall of ,000 British soldiers arrived in Boston ( General Thomas Gage) – tensions roseOn March 5th 1770, outside a Boston customs house, a group of colonists shouted insults (protesting the Quartering Act) at “redcoats” guarding the building.Protesters shouted insults such as “lobster back” and threw snowballs, oyster shells and chunks of ice at the British soldiers.As the crowd grew larger the British soldiers panicked and fired their muskets.
19 Results of the Boston Massacre Five people were killed by the soldiers,Samuel Maverick, 17 years old, and Crispus Attucks, an African American sailor were both fatally woundedJohn Adams defended the soldiers on murder chargesThe jury ruled that they had acted in self-defenseBecame a tool for anti-British propaganda
20 Committee of Correspondence Letter-writing campaign, led by Sam AdamsThis committee, from Boston, wrote letters to other colonies in an effort to keep them informedBecame very successful as a means for protest