Presentation on theme: "Section 2 Essential Question: How did the French and Indian War draw the colonists closer together but increase friction with Britain? To begin answering."— Presentation transcript:
Section 2 Essential Question: How did the French and Indian War draw the colonists closer together but increase friction with Britain? To begin answering this question, you have to : -Find out why Britain prevented colonist from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. -Learn why Britain tried to increase The colonists’ tax. -How the colonist reacted to the Stamp Act. Why the Townshend Acts led to protests.
Conflict with Native Americans By 1763, Britain controlled most of North America east of the Mississippi River. Native Americans within this region feared the encroachment of British settlers onto their lands.
Pontiac's Rebellion In the last days of the French and Indian War, the leader of the Ottawa nation, Pontiac, formed an alliance of western Native Americans. In May 1763, Pontiac and his allies attacked British forts and settlements throughout the area. The British defeated Pontiac’s forces in early August at a battle near Fort Pitt.
The Proclamation of 1763 To avoid more conflicts, Britain issued the Proclamation of It banned colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Many colonists felt the ban went against their right to live where they pleased. The effort was unsuccessful and is viewed by many to be a leading cause of the Revolutionary War.
What were the terms of the Proclamation of 1763? Colonial settlements were banned west of the Appalachian Mountains.
British Rule Leads to Conflict The colonist were proud of helping to win the French and Indian War. Most colonists felt some independence from Britain, but they were still loyal British subjects. That loyalty began to erode when Britain, now deeply in debt from the French and Indian War, began to pass new taxes
The Sugar Act In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act, which put a duty or import tax on several products, including molasses. Colonial merchants who sometimes traded in smuggled goods, protested.
Quartering Act: Quartering Act: The purpose of the act was a cost saving measure that Britain used that required colonists to house soldiers in their homes and provide them with supplies. The colonists complained that Parliament was violating their rights.
Why did the British impose new taxes on the American colonists? To help pay the cost of the war and protecting the colonist.
Stamp Act: Stamp Act: In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act. It required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid. In protest, some colonies passed a resolution declaring that only the colonial governments had the right to tax the colonist. Merchants in major cities boycotted British goods.
What Was The Stamp Act? Taxed all legal, commercial and printed documents, as well as other printed material. Items would be stamped when the tax was paid. First direct tax placed on the colonies.
Actual Stamps There were a variety of stamps used. Stamps were put on newspapers, customs documents, licenses, college diplomas, and most legal documents. Offenders were to be tried in vice-admiralty courts without a jury.
Reactions by Colonists The colonists boycotted British goods and stores that sold them, lawyers or printers who used stamps or stamped paper. Many lawyers and printers refused to use stamps or stamped paper.
Tar and Feathering
More Reactions In Massachusetts, rioters destroyed Andrew Oliver’s house, a new stamp commissioner. He quit the next day! There was also violence sparked by the Sons Of Liberty.
More Reactions There were even threats of tar and feathering. On November 1, 1765, the day the Stamp Act was to officially go into effect, there wasn’t a stamp commissioner left in the colonies to collect the tax. In Boston, a mob hung and then beheaded an effigy and “stamped” it into pieces. In New York, rioters ransacked a British officer’s house. The officer had said he “would cram the stamps down American throats at the point of his sword!”
Repeal Stamp Act ended on March. 18, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act to keep England on top.
Why did colonist object to the Stamp Act? They did not want to pay additional taxes on many additional products and services.
What were points of conflict? Illegal Search Warrants Sugar Act in 1764 Quartering Act in 1765 Stamp Act in 1765 ` Conflict Areas
Protest Spread Colonial merchants began a boycott of British goods. Secret societies began to form: Sons of Liberty - Many were lawyers, merchants, and craftspeople - those most affected by the Stamp Act. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, but imposed the Declaration Act - This gave parliament supreme authority to govern the colonies.
More British Actions Townshend Acts: Placed taxes on goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. In order to enforce the act, British officers use writs of assistance to enter homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods. Colonist saw the Townshend Acts as a serious threat to their rights and freedoms.
Tools of Protest To protest the Townshend Acts, colonists formed another boycott of British goods. This boycott was formed by Samuel Adams - Leader of the Sons of Liberty. Sons of Liberty pressured shopkeepers not to sell imported goods. Daughters of Liberty called on colonists to weave their own cloth and use American products.
The Boston Massacre
On March 5, 1770, a group of youth and dock workers - including Crispus Attucks started trading insults in front of the Custom House. A fight broke out, and the soldiers began firing. Attucks and four laborers were killed. Crispus Attucks became the first man to die in the Revolutionary War. Sons of Liberty called the shooting the Boston Massacre.
The Committees of Correspondence After the Boston Massacre, Samuel Adams, established the Committee of Correspondence. The aim was to keep colonist informed of British actions. They wrote letters and pamphlets to keep colonists informed of British actions. This helped to unite the colonies.
How did the colonist react to the Townshend Acts? By boycotting British goods and using goods made in the colonies instead.
Section 2 Essential Question: How did the French and Indian War draw the colonists closer together but increase friction with Britain? During the war, people had greater contact with each other. Friction with Britain increased when Britain raised taxes.