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Crystallography Basics By Cheryl Sill Science Teacher MMEW 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Crystallography Basics By Cheryl Sill Science Teacher MMEW 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crystallography Basics By Cheryl Sill Science Teacher MMEW 2014

2 Crystallography The study of atomic and molecular structure The study of atomic and molecular structure Began with the study of minerals: such as quartz, diamond and graphite Began with the study of minerals: such as quartz, diamond and graphite Today, includes the study of crystalline solids such as minerals, viruses, proteins Today, includes the study of crystalline solids such as minerals, viruses, proteins Use of x-rays, neutron diffraction, high and low-temperature diffraction, microgravity and molecular modeling Use of x-rays, neutron diffraction, high and low-temperature diffraction, microgravity and molecular modeling

3 Why study crystallography at the elementary and secondary level? Crystals are WAY COOL! Crystals are WAY COOL! Crystals are good way to introduce chemistry, geology, physics, symmetry, three-dimensional thinking and modeling Crystals are good way to introduce chemistry, geology, physics, symmetry, three-dimensional thinking and modeling Crystals introduce how the particles in a substance are physically arranged. Crystals introduce how the particles in a substance are physically arranged. Crystals are a concrete way to help students understand the relationship between atomic structure and properties of these materials. Crystals are a concrete way to help students understand the relationship between atomic structure and properties of these materials. Awesome way to reinforce the atomic theory. Awesome way to reinforce the atomic theory. Besides, 2014 has been named the Year of Crystallography by the International Union of Crystallography Besides, 2014 has been named the Year of Crystallography by the International Union of Crystallography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlBPajICFIU&feature=youtu.be https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlBPajICFIU&feature=youtu.be https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlBPajICFIU&feature=youtu.be

4 Crystal Definition Regular polyhedral form (solid) Regular polyhedral form (solid) Bounded by smooth faces Bounded by smooth faces Defined chemical compound Defined chemical compound interatomic forces of the anions and cations will form the most stable configuration based upon their electron configurations interatomic forces of the anions and cations will form the most stable configuration based upon their electron configurations Usually formed while it is changing from a liquid, gas or in a solution, to a solid

5 Crystal Chemistry Minerals are classified according to their chemical composition. Minerals are classified according to their chemical composition. Classified according to their dominant anion (negatively charged ion). Classified according to their dominant anion (negatively charged ion). Oxides: Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 or Corundum, Al 2 O 3 Oxides: Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 or Corundum, Al 2 O 3 Silicates: Quartz SiO 2 or Microcline KAl (Si 3 O 8 ) Silicates: Quartz SiO 2 or Microcline KAl (Si 3 O 8 ) Carbonates: Calcite, CaCO 3 or Strontianite, SrCO 3 Carbonates: Calcite, CaCO 3 or Strontianite, SrCO 3 The chemical composition determines the crystalline shape, or morphology. The chemical composition determines the crystalline shape, or morphology.

6 Crystallography History 1669, Nicholas Steno, a Danish physician and natural scientist, discovered through analysis of numerous samples of the same mineral, when measured at the same temperature, the angles between similar crystal faces remain constant regardless of the size or the shape of the crystal. 1669, Nicholas Steno, a Danish physician and natural scientist, discovered through analysis of numerous samples of the same mineral, when measured at the same temperature, the angles between similar crystal faces remain constant regardless of the size or the shape of the crystal. Steno's law is called the CONSTANCY OF INTERFACIAL ANGLES Steno's law is called the CONSTANCY OF INTERFACIAL ANGLES Crystal Face Crystal Face Crystallographic Axes Crystallographic Axes Axial Cross Axial Cross

7 Seven Major Crystal Systems Isometric Isometric Tetragonal Tetragonal Orthorhombic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Monoclinic Triclinic Triclinic Trigonal Trigonal Hexagonal Hexagonal There are actually 32 classes of symmetry, 230 space groups that are observable through x-ray analysis, but for most secondary school settings I discuss only 6 major classes,. I have not discussed trigonal separately.

8 Crystal Morphology Isometricorthorhombictetragonal Isometricorthorhombictetragonal Notice the angles between all axes are 90 o, yet the lengths of the axes vary. Notice the angles between all axes are 90 o, yet the lengths of the axes vary. Isometric: all three axes are the same length. Tetragonal has only one axes longer than the other two axes and orthorhombic axes all differ in length. Isometric: all three axes are the same length. Tetragonal has only one axes longer than the other two axes and orthorhombic axes all differ in length.

9 Crystal Morphology MonoclinicTriclinicTrigonalHexagonal MonoclinicTriclinicTrigonalHexagonal Monoclinic shape: one axes varies from 90 o. Monoclinic shape: one axes varies from 90 o. The Hexagonal and Trigonal shapes have 4 axes. The Hexagonal and Trigonal shapes have 4 axes.

10 Isometric (cubic) Here is a photo of some excellent sample of pyrite from Peru. Notice that each large crystal looks different, yet the faces are symmetrical in all three axes. Here is a photo of some excellent sample of pyrite from Peru. Notice that each large crystal looks different, yet the faces are symmetrical in all three axes.

11 Tetragonal Two good samples of cassiterite to exemplify the 90 o angles, but only one axes measurable longer than the other two axes. Both samples were found in China. Two good samples of cassiterite to exemplify the 90 o angles, but only one axes measurable longer than the other two axes. Both samples were found in China.

12 Orthorhombic Two beautiful examples of orthorhombic crystals. Above left is Caledonite from Mammoth Mine in Tiger, Arizona and above left is a beautiful Barite sample from Peru. Two beautiful examples of orthorhombic crystals. Above left is Caledonite from Mammoth Mine in Tiger, Arizona and above left is a beautiful Barite sample from Peru. Notice the axes are still at 90 o angles, but the length of all three axes are unequal. Notice the axes are still at 90 o angles, but the length of all three axes are unequal.

13 Monoclinic A beautiful transparent sample of Gypsum from Romania is in the photo below, left. A beautiful transparent sample of Gypsum from Romania is in the photo below, left. This classic example of orthoclase, or K-Spar as some call it, depicts a perfect example of variation of crystal shape. This sample was found in Portugal. This classic example of orthoclase, or K-Spar as some call it, depicts a perfect example of variation of crystal shape. This sample was found in Portugal.

14 Triclinic Two bright blue crystals of kyanite on a white quartz matrix Two bright blue crystals of kyanite on a white quartz matrix A colorless, blocky sample of albite (plagioclase) with a thick dusting of green micro chlorite. A colorless, blocky sample of albite (plagioclase) with a thick dusting of green micro chlorite.

15 Hexagonal This gemstone quality Beryl, below left, was found in the Northern areas of Pakistan. This gemstone quality Beryl, below left, was found in the Northern areas of Pakistan. Below center is a beautiful sample of Milarite from the Osumilite Group found in Switzerland. Below center is a beautiful sample of Milarite from the Osumilite Group found in Switzerland. Our common snowflake exemplifies the hexagonal crystalline form in ice. Our common snowflake exemplifies the hexagonal crystalline form in ice.

16 How & where does Crystallography fit into our curriculum? I place it at the very start of the mineral identification unit. I place it at the very start of the mineral identification unit. This is one of the characteristic properties of minerals. This is one of the characteristic properties of minerals. Class 1: Introduce 6 Crystal classification, 3-D Paper Cut-outs Class 1: Introduce 6 Crystal classification, 3-D Paper Cut-outs Class 2: Go over the 6 cut-out shapes & the NOVA video of diamonds or National Geographics “splendid Stones” Class 2: Go over the 6 cut-out shapes & the NOVA video of diamonds or National Geographics “splendid Stones” exploration/splendid-stones-dvd-exclusive exploration/splendid-stones-dvd-exclusive exploration/splendid-stones-dvd-exclusive exploration/splendid-stones-dvd-exclusive Students set their shapes on top of the name that corresponds with the shape Students set their shapes on top of the name that corresponds with the shape As they are watching the video, I move around the room & record their construction. As they are watching the video, I move around the room & record their construction. Points (12), participation or criterion-based grading, formative. Points (12), participation or criterion-based grading, formative. Class 3: Day 1 of Crystal Growing Activity: Salt, CuSO 4, Alum Class 3: Day 1 of Crystal Growing Activity: Salt, CuSO 4, Alum Last day of school week, so water evaporates with no disturbance Last day of school week, so water evaporates with no disturbance Class 4: Day 2 of Crystal Growing Activity Class 4: Day 2 of Crystal Growing Activity

17 Mineral Groups The names of these groups are based upon their chemical composition. The names of these groups are based upon their chemical composition. Native Elements Native Elements Silicates Silicates Halides Halides Oxides Oxides Carbonates Carbonates Sulfides Sulfides Sulfates Sulfates

18 Activities Paper 3-D shapes of six major crystal shapes Paper 3-D shapes of six major crystal shapes Crystal Growing Activity (need a weekend) Crystal Growing Activity (need a weekend) Alum, KAl(SO 4 ) 2 Alum, KAl(SO 4 ) 2 Table Salt, NaCl Table Salt, NaCl CuSO 4 CuSO 4

19 Useful Web-sites Webmineral Webmineral Webmineral raphy raphy raphy raphy shtml 1.shtml 1.shtml 1.shtml


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