Presentation on theme: "Crystallography Basics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Crystallography Basics By Cheryl SillScience TeacherMMEW 2014
2 Crystallography The study of atomic and molecular structure Began with the study of minerals: such as quartz, diamond and graphiteToday, includes the study of crystalline solids such as minerals, viruses, proteinsUse of x-rays, neutron diffraction, high and low-temperature diffraction, microgravity and molecular modeling
3 Why study crystallography at the elementary and secondary level? Crystals are WAY COOL!Crystals are good way to introduce chemistry, geology, physics, symmetry, three-dimensional thinking and modelingCrystals introduce how the particles in a substance are physically arranged.Crystals are a concrete way to help students understand the relationship between atomic structure and properties of these materials.Awesome way to reinforce the atomic theory.Besides, 2014 has been named the Year of Crystallography by the International Union of Crystallographyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlBPajICFIU&feature=youtu.be
4 Crystal Definition Regular polyhedral form (solid) Bounded by smooth facesDefined chemical compoundinteratomic forces of the anions and cations will form the most stable configuration based upon their electron configurationsUsually formed while it is changing from a liquid, gas or in a solution, to a solid
5 Crystal ChemistryMinerals are classified according to their chemical composition.Classified according to their dominant anion (negatively charged ion).Oxides: Hematite, Fe2O3 or Corundum, Al2O3Silicates: Quartz SiO2 or Microcline KAl (Si3O8)Carbonates: Calcite, CaCO3 or Strontianite, SrCO3The chemical composition determines the crystalline shape, or morphology.
6 Crystallography History 1669, Nicholas Steno, a Danish physician and natural scientist, discovered through analysis of numerous samples of the same mineral, when measured at the same temperature, the angles between similar crystal faces remain constant regardless of the size or the shape of the crystal.Steno's law is called the CONSTANCY OF INTERFACIAL ANGLESCrystal FaceCrystallographic AxesAxial Cross
7 Seven Major Crystal Systems IsometricTriclinicTetragonalTrigonalOrthorhombicHexagonalMonoclinicThere are actually 32 classes of symmetry, 230 space groups that are observable through x-ray analysis, but for most secondary school settings I discuss only 6 major classes,. I have not discussed trigonal separately.
8 Crystal Morphology Isometric orthorhombic tetragonal Notice the angles between all axes are 90o, yet the lengths of the axes vary.Isometric: all three axes are the same length. Tetragonal has only one axes longer than the other two axes and orthorhombic axes all differ in length.
9 Crystal Morphology Monoclinic Triclinic Trigonal Hexagonal Monoclinic shape: one axes varies from 90o.The Hexagonal and Trigonal shapes have 4 axes.
10 Isometric (cubic)Here is a photo of some excellent sample of pyrite from Peru. Notice that each large crystal looks different, yet the faces are symmetrical in all three axes.
11 TetragonalTwo good samples of cassiterite to exemplify the 90o angles, but only one axes measurable longer than the other two axes. Both samples were found in China.
12 OrthorhombicTwo beautiful examples of orthorhombic crystals. Above left is Caledonite from Mammoth Mine in Tiger, Arizona and above left is a beautiful Barite sample from Peru.Notice the axes are still at 90o angles, but the length of all three axes are unequal.
13 MonoclinicA beautiful transparent sample of Gypsum from Romania is in the photo below, left.This classic example of orthoclase, or K-Spar as some call it, depicts a perfect example of variation of crystal shape. This sample was found in Portugal.
14 Triclinic Two bright blue crystals of kyanite on a white quartz matrix A colorless, blocky sample of albite (plagioclase) with a thick dusting of green micro chlorite.
15 HexagonalThis gemstone quality Beryl, below left, was found in the Northern areas of Pakistan.Below center is a beautiful sample of Milarite from the Osumilite Group found in Switzerland.Our common snowflake exemplifies the hexagonal crystalline form in ice.
16 How & where does Crystallography fit into our curriculum? I place it at the very start of the mineral identification unit.This is one of the characteristic properties of minerals.Class 1: Introduce 6 Crystal classification, 3-D Paper Cut-outsClass 2: Go over the 6 cut-out shapes & the NOVA video of diamonds or National Geographics “splendid Stones”exploration/splendid-stones-dvd-exclusiveStudents set their shapes on top of the name that corresponds with the shapeAs they are watching the video, I move around the room & record their construction.Points (12), participation or criterion-based grading, formative.Class 3: Day 1 of Crystal Growing Activity: Salt, CuSO4, AlumLast day of school week, so water evaporates with no disturbanceClass 4: Day 2 of Crystal Growing Activity
17 Mineral GroupsThe names of these groups are based upon their chemical composition.HalidesOxidesCarbonatesNative ElementsSulfidesSilicatesSulfates
18 Activities Paper 3-D shapes of six major crystal shapes Crystal Growing Activity (need a weekend)Alum, KAl(SO4)2Table Salt, NaClCuSO4