Presentation on theme: "2.1 Minerals Are All Around Us"— Presentation transcript:
12.1 Minerals Are All Around Us Minerals are basic building blocks of Earth
2Minerals are all around us. Minerals are used all the time.Copper in the wires that carry electricity to a deviceTable salt, or halite (HAYL-YT), is a mineralMinerals and rocks are not the same.MineralsFormed in natureSolidDefinite chemical makeupCrystal structureAlways made up of the same materials in the same proportionsRocksUsually contains two or more types of mineralsAmounts of minerals may vary between the same types of rock
4Minerals have four characteristics. Is formed in natureIs a solidHas a definite chemical makeupHas a crystal structure
5Formed in Nature Minerals are formed by natural processes Every mineral can form without involvement by living organismsA few can be produced as part of an organisms shells or bones.Form in many waysHalite (table salt) is formed when ocean water evaporatesGranite develops when molten rock cools.Talc (found in baby powder) is formed from the high pressure and temperature deep in Earth.
6Solid A mineral has a definite volume and a rigid shape Liquids and gases are not minerals unless they are in solid formExamplesLiquid water is not a mineral, but ice is.Copper is a mineral when in solid form, but melted copper is a liquid, so it is not considered a mineral.
7Definite Chemical Makeup Each mineral consists of a specific combination of atoms of certain elements.Elements are substances that contain only one type of atomAtoms are the smallest particle an element can be divided intoEverything is made up of atoms.Some minerals (gold, copper) consist of one element of the same typeMost minerals are compounds, substances consisting of several elements in specific proportions (NaCl)The types of atoms in a mineral help to make it uniqueAtom bonds also help make it unique
10Crystal Structure Arrangements of atoms are characteristic of minerals Crystals are solids in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional patternEach mineral has its own type of crystal structureTwo minerals can have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures.Diamond and graphiteConsist only of carbonArrangement of the carbon atoms result in different crystal structures and properties.Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle.Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.Perfect crystals rarely form in nature.Needs to form in open spaceAmount of growing space influences shape and size of crystals.
14Minerals are grouped according to composition. Minerals are classified based on their chemical makeupsOut of thousands of minerals, only 30 are common in Earth’s crustCalled rock-forming minerals and make up most rocks in the crust.Most common are silicatesContain oxygen and silicon (most common elements in crust) joined togetherMake up about 90 percent of the rocks in Earth’s crustMost common rock-forming minerals are Quartz, Feldspar, MicaCarbonatesContain carbon and oxygen joined togetherSecond most common group of rock-forming mineralsMany other important mineral groups.oxides contains the minerals from which most metals (tin, copper), are refined.Consists of an element, usually a metal, joined to oxygen (hematite)
15Minerals are grouped according to composition. Silicates are the most common rock-forming mineral group.Carbonates are the second most common mineral group.The oxides group contains the minerals from which most metals are refined
16Minerals are grouped according to composition. Give three examples of silicates.QuartzFeldsparMicaWhat are rock-forming minerals? List some examples.Rock-forming minerals are a group of about 30 minerals that make up most of the rocks in Earth’s crust. Some examples are quartz, feldspar, mica, and calcite.