Presentation on theme: "Minerals Write down what you know about minerals."— Presentation transcript:
1 Minerals Write down what you know about minerals. What things in this room are made of minerals?
2 The building blocks of rocks MineralsThe building blocks of rocks
3 Some Chemistry ReviewAtom – basic unit of matter; smallest part of an element that keeps the element’s propertiesElement – substance that can’t be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means(What do these two terms mean in your own words?)
4 Compound – a substance that contains atoms of two or more elements that are chemically combined Ex. Water (H20) – Two hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atomThis combination occurs when atoms bond in one of many ways, all involving the electrons
5 Electron arrangement 2 electrons in the first ring 8 electrons in the second ring8 electrons in the third ring(It gets more complicated….)Remember: an atom wants the number of negative electrons that surround its nucleus to match its number of positive protons.Number of protons is the same as atomic number
6 Practice drawing electron configuration: CarbonOxygenHydrogenSilicon
7 Elements that make up most of the Earth’s Crust #1: Oxygen (O) 47%#2: Silicon (Si) 28%also Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium
8 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring (not man-made) Inorganic (not alive or made from living things)Solid (not liquid or gas)Definite chemical structure (each mineral always has the same atoms bonded together)Crystal structure (orderly arrangement of atoms)(A substance has to meet all fiveof these characteristics to be a mineral!)
9 Crystal StructureCrystal – regular geometric solid with smooth surfaces called crystal faces
10 In minerals, the shape of the crystal depends mainly on the atoms of the mineral and the way they arrange themselvesDespite thousands of minerals, there are only six basic crystal shapes
11 Mineral Formation and Composition 1. Come from Magma (molten rock beneath Earth’s surface)When cooled, mineral crystals are formed
12 How and where magma cools determines size of mineral crystal 2 most common elements found in magma are oxygen and silicon
13 2. Compounds are dissolved in a liquid, which evaporate leaving minerals as crystals
14 Questions to Discuss:What are the two most common elements in the earth’s crust? In magma? Does this make sense?What is the difference between an atom, an element, and a compound?What are some ways to help you remember the five characteristics of a mineral?Can elements be minerals? Are all elements minerals?
15 Which of these are minerals? Why or why not? Salt?Water?Ice?Aluminum?Synthetic (man-made) diamond?Sugar? (Think where it comes from)Diamond?Coal? (Think where it comes from)Quartz?
16 Silicate MineralsMinerals that contain silicon and oxygen (and usually other elements, too)96% of the minerals formed in the Earth’s crust are silicatesExamples are:feldsparquartz (shown)mica