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A Mineral is… Naturally Occurring – made by nature – not by man
A Mineral is… Inorganic - not alive, never was alive, not made from a living process
A Mineral is… Solid – not a liquid or a gas
A Mineral is… Unique Chemical Composition – every mineral is different
A Mineral is… Crystalline Structure – atoms repeat in patterns
Basics of Crystals Crystals are defined by the number of sides (faces) and the angles of these sides (geometry)
1. Cubic cubic – all sides are square
2. Tetragonal tetragonal – 4 rectangles, 2 squares
3. Orthorhombic orthorhombic – all rectangles, 3 different sized rectangles
4. Monoclinic monoclinic – 4 rectangles, 2 parallelograms
5. Triclinic triclinic – all parallelograms
6. Hexagonal hexagonal - six-sided prisms. When you look at the crystal on-end, the cross section is a hexagon
Mineral Groups Minerals are often grouped together by their composition (what they are made of) There are over 4,000 known minerals and only 7 groups
1. Silicates (most common) Contain silicon and oxygen Ex. Quartz, Olivine, Augite
2. Carbonates Contain CO 3 Ex. Calcite, Dolomite
3. Oxides Contain oxygen bonded with 1 or more elements Ex. Corundum, Hematite
4. Sulfides and 5. Sulfates Sulfides (contain Sulfur), Sulfates contain SO 4 Ex. Gypsum, Galena, Pyrite
6. Halides Contain halogens (Fluorine, Chlorine, etc.) Ex. Halite, Fluorite
7. Native Elements Mostly metals, found as individual elements Ex. Copper, Gold, Silver
How do Minerals form? 1. Cooling magma or lava 2. Hydrothermal 3. Evaporation of liquid solutions 4. Precipitate out of solution
1. Cooling magma or lava
3. Evaporation of liquid solutions
4. Precipitate out of solution
5 Characteristics Used to Identify Minerals 1) Hardness 2) Break Tendency 3) Luster (metallic/non-metallic) 4) Streak 5) Color
1) Hardness (Moh’s Scale) - how easily a mineral can be scratched
2) Break Tendency Fracture- breaks along rough, jagged edges Cleavage – breaks along smooth, flat surfaces Conchoidal fracture – curved breakage
3) Luster (metallic/non-metallic) - how light shines off of its surface MetallicNon-metallic
4) Streak Color of a mineral when broken or powdered
Other ways to identify minerals Reactivity with acids Density/specific gravity Magnetism More special properties to come
Other Properties of Minerals Reactivity with Acid Magnetic Fluorescence Phosphouresence Density Crystal Shape Triboluminesence
Reactivity with acid Carbonate minerals fizz when acid is applied Magnetic Some iron rich minerals are magnetic
Minerals. A Mineral is… 1. Naturally Occurring – made by nature – not by man Question: What are the 5 characteristics that all minerals share?
MINERALS What are minerals used for? Have you ever put salt on your food? Chromoly bicycle frames Jewelry (silver, gold, precious stones) Computer chips.
Earth Science Notes MINERALS. Definition of a Mineral A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous solid with a definite chemical composition.
Minerals. Matter Matter is anything that has volume and mass Solid- definite shape and volume Liquid- only definite volume Gas- neither definite shape.
Minerals Chapter 5.
Minerals Chapter 4. What is a mineral Mineral- a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline.
What is a Mineral? Identifying Minerals.. You may think that all minerals look like gems. But, in fact, most minerals look more like rocks. Does this.
Minerals! What is a mineral? In order for a substance to be classified as a mineral it must maintain FIVE characteristics. 1. Naturally occurring 2.
MINERALS. Minerals must have four characteristics: ▪ it must be inorganic—not made of or by living things; ▪ it must occur naturally—it cannot be man-made;
MINERALS CH. 2. The building blocks of minerals are elements. MINERALS.
Minerals. What is a mineral? Naturally occurring inorganic (no living thing or remains) Solid Definite shape ( arranged in an orderly pattern) definite.
What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.
Minerals Chapter 3. Minerals – naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite structure and composition Minerals – naturally occurring, inorganic.
Unit 4 – Lesson 1 (Minerals). Common Traits among Minerals Mineral: a naturally occurring, usually inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure.
Minerals. Standards/Objectives Define and describe minerals Describe the composition and structure of minerals Describe how minerals form Describe.
Minerals and Mineral Families. What is a Mineral? A substance found in the Earth that always has the same chemical composition.
Minerals. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Matter is anything that takes up space Matter can be classified as an element, compound, or mixture An atom.
Unit 2 Chapter 5 Minerals of Earth's Crust. Minerals: Are naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition with the atoms.
Properties and Uses. Identify the physical properties that can be used to identify common minerals Identify major elements in the Earth’s crust Explain.
Chapter 3 Minerals of Earth’s Crust
Unit 5:. Minerals are: Solid Formed in nature Inorganic Of a definite composition Composed of a particular crystal structure.
MINERALS CHAPTER 4. Minerals play important roles in forming rocks and in shaping Earth’s surface, and a select few have played a role in shaping civilization.
Geology Rocks, Minerals, Volcanoes, & Earthquakes.
Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens
Minerals Mineral Mineral Formation A naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure. – Naturally formed – not made by people.
Coach Williams Room 310B. 4.1: What is a mineral?
What Are Minerals? Minerals – a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition Minerals – a naturally.
Minerals. 5 characteristics 1. Naturally occurring 2. Solid 3. Orderly crystalline structure 4. Definite chemical composition 5. Generally inorganic.
Minerals Chapter 3 Sec. 1 & 2.
Chapter 2 Minerals Remember >>>> The Earth is made of matter anything that has mass & takes up space Matter- anything that has mass & takes up space Most.
MINERALS EARTH MATERIALS.
5.2 Structure and Composition of Minerals. A. What is a Mineral? Occurs Naturally Is a solid Has definite Chemical Composition Atoms are arranged in an.
Elements and the Periodic Table 2.1 Matter Elements are the basic building blocks of minerals. Over 100 elements are known.
Mineral Identification Identifying Minerals: Minerals have chemical and physical properties that are unique to each mineral Physical Properties Color.
Minerals. What is a Mineral? A solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substance. Rocks are made of minerals, but minerals are not made of rocks.
Chapter 3 Minerals. Mineral Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Definite structure – crystalline – solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating.
What is a Mineral? Naturally formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally formed solid substance with a crystal structure Building blocks.
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Minerals UNIT 2 STANDARDS: STATE OBJECTIVES: NCES 2.1.1, 2.1.3, LESSON 2.
What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.
Vocabulary Objectives mineral Luster Cleavage Hardness Gem crystal
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