3Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovJohn B. WatsonBehaviorism-the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental process.
4Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov’s method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus.
5Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Experiments Parts of Classical ConditioningNeutral Stimulus (NS)Unconditioned stimulus (US)Unconditioned response (UR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)Conditioned response (CR)
6Classical Conditioning Vocab Neutral Stimulus (NS)- In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.Unconditioned response (UR)- In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditional stimulus (such as food in the mouth).Unconditioned stimulus (US)- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response.Conditioned response (CR)- in classical conditioning, a learned response to previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
7CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND ADVERTISING Ways in which classical conditioning helps sell…Pairing popular music together with products in ads to generate positive feelingsConsistently advertising a product on an exciting game show may result in the product itself generating excitementChristmas music played in a store may trigger happy memories in a consumer’s mind persuading them to enter the store.Before we have heard of a product, it is Neutral. If we associate the product (N) with pleasant images (UCS), which produce pleasant feelings (UCR), the product (CS) will later create pleasant feelings (CR).
8Let’s say you have a beverage commercial that includes barely clothed models drinking the product. Conditioning is taking place.Neutral:UCS:UCR:CS:Generate a list of 5 – 10 things that they have learned through classical conditioning in their lives. Pick one and try to identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR.CR:
11How Does This Work with Human? Office Clip of Dwight and Jim
12Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson proved that conditioning of emotions to neutral objects is possibleWatson showed that fear can be learned through classical conditioning (ex. Sound of a gun shot can cause fear in war vets)Albert was shown a white rat and several other animals. At first Albert was not afraid. Then, the experimenter began making a loud noise behind Albert every time he saw the white rat. Eventually Albert feared the rat without the loud noise. Soon Albert feared all the animals = stimulus generalization.
14OPERANT CONDITIONINGLearning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in behavioral changeImagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likely remember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, you’ve learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actionsOperant Conditioning involves learned voluntary responses (ones we control)
15Examples of Operant Conditioning ter=ckTlQZWD_2GdFVAp8ujbUA&safe=active
16Operant Conditioning Vocab Reinforcement- any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. (positive/negative)
17PRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCERS Reinforcement is something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that responsePRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCERSPrimary reinforcement is something that is necessary for survival. Ex: food or waterWhen a contractor reinforces something, he is strengthening it.Primary Reinforcement Examples:Dessert as a reward for eating vegetablesDolphin gets a fish for performing trickSecondary reinforcement is a stimulus that we have learned to value (linked to a primary reinforcer)
18Operant Conditioning Vocab Reinforcement schedule- a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.
20Operant Conditioning Vocab Punishment- an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.
21B.F. Skinner is best known for his work with the operant conditioning theory. Believed that how we turn out is a direct result of what we learn from all of the operations (operant) that we make over the yearsSkinnerBox
27Social LearningThe process of altering behavior by observing and imitating others. Includes cognitive learning & ModelingCognitive Learning – involves mental process and may involve observation and imitationCognitive Map – mental picture of a place
28Modeling – learning by imitating/copying Bobo-Doll ExperimentBandura demonstrated that children learn aggressive behaviors by watching an adult’s aggressive behaviors.
29Bandura’s Four Processes Of Cognitive LearningAttention: Observer must pay attention to modelMemory: Observer stores information about what the model didImitation: Observer uses remembered info to guide own actionsMotivation: Observer must have incentive to imitate model’s behavior
30Learning through Observation Does Viewing Media Violence Trigger Violent Behavior? Reading pg. 309 of the textbook Discussion Questions: