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PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNING Learning- the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNING Learning- the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNING Learning- the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

2 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning

3 Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov John B. Watson Behaviorism- the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental process.

4 Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov’s method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus.

5 Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Experiments
Parts of Classical Conditioning Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR)

6 Classical Conditioning Vocab
Neutral Stimulus (NS)- In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning. Unconditioned response (UR)- In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditional stimulus (such as food in the mouth). Unconditioned stimulus (US)- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response. Conditioned response (CR)- in classical conditioning, a learned response to previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.

Ways in which classical conditioning helps sell… Pairing popular music together with products in ads to generate positive feelings Consistently advertising a product on an exciting game show may result in the product itself generating excitement Christmas music played in a store may trigger happy memories in a consumer’s mind persuading them to enter the store. Before we have heard of a product, it is Neutral. If we associate the product (N) with pleasant images (UCS), which produce pleasant feelings (UCR), the product (CS) will later create pleasant feelings (CR).

8 Let’s say you have a beverage commercial that includes barely clothed models drinking the product. Conditioning is taking place. Neutral: UCS: UCR: CS: Generate a list of 5 – 10 things that they have learned through classical conditioning in their lives. Pick one and try to identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR. CR:



11 How Does This Work with Human?
Office Clip of Dwight and Jim

12 Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson proved that conditioning of emotions to neutral objects is possible Watson showed that fear can be learned through classical conditioning (ex. Sound of a gun shot can cause fear in war vets) Albert was shown a white rat and several other animals. At first Albert was not afraid. Then, the experimenter began making a loud noise behind Albert every time he saw the white rat. Eventually Albert feared the rat without the loud noise. Soon Albert feared all the animals = stimulus generalization.

13 Little Albert

14 OPERANT CONDITIONING Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in behavioral change Imagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likely remember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, you’ve learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actions Operant Conditioning involves learned voluntary responses (ones we control)

15 Examples of Operant Conditioning

16 Operant Conditioning Vocab
Reinforcement- any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. (positive/negative)

Reinforcement is something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response PRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCERS Primary reinforcement is something that is necessary for survival. Ex: food or water When a contractor reinforces something, he is strengthening it. Primary Reinforcement Examples: Dessert as a reward for eating vegetables Dolphin gets a fish for performing trick Secondary reinforcement is a stimulus that we have learned to value (linked to a primary reinforcer)

18 Operant Conditioning Vocab
Reinforcement schedule- a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.

19 Reinforcement Schedules

20 Operant Conditioning Vocab
Punishment- an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.

21 B.F. Skinner is best known for his work with the operant conditioning theory.
Believed that how we turn out is a direct result of what we learn from all of the operations (operant) that we make over the years Skinner Box

22 Module 28 Operant v. Classical Conditioning

23 Module 29 Biology, Cognition, and Learning

24 Biological Constraints on Conditioning

25 Influences on Conditioning

26 Module 30 Learning by Observation

27 Social Learning The process of altering behavior by observing and imitating others. Includes cognitive learning & Modeling Cognitive Learning – involves mental process and may involve observation and imitation Cognitive Map – mental picture of a place

28 Modeling – learning by imitating/copying
Bobo-Doll Experiment Bandura demonstrated that children learn aggressive behaviors by watching an adult’s aggressive behaviors.

29 Bandura’s Four Processes
Of Cognitive Learning Attention: Observer must pay attention to model Memory: Observer stores information about what the model did Imitation: Observer uses remembered info to guide own actions Motivation: Observer must have incentive to imitate model’s behavior

30 Learning through Observation
Does Viewing Media Violence Trigger Violent Behavior? Reading pg. 309 of the textbook Discussion Questions:

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