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Chapter 3 Learning and Memory

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1 Chapter 3 Learning and Memory
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon Dr. Rika Houston CSU-Los Angeles MKT 342: Consumer Behavior

2 The Learning Process Learning Incidental Learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Incidental Learning casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge

3 Behavioral Learning Theories
Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events Classical conditioning Instrumental conditioning

4 Behavioral Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning
A stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own

5 Repetition Repetition increases learning
More exposures = more brand awareness When exposure decreases, extinction occurs However, too much exposure leads to advertising wear out

6 Stimulus Generalization
Tendency for stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to evoke similar, unconditioned responses Marketing applications: Family branding Product line extensions Licensing Look-alike packaging

7 Behavioral Learning Theories: Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
The individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes

8 Instrumental Conditioning
Behaviors have positive or negative outcomes Instrumental conditions occurs when there is: Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction

9 Figure 3.2 Instrumental Conditioning

10 Cognitive Learning Theories
Stress the importance of internal mental processes People are viewed as problem solvers We actively use information from the world around us to master our environments Observational learning: We watch each other and model the behavior of others

11 Figure 3.3 The Observational Learning Process
Modeling: imitating the behavior of others

12 Role of Memory in Learning
Acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed Information-processing approach Mind = computer & data = input/output Figure 3.4

13 How Information Gets Encoded
mentally program the meaning Types of meaning Sensory meaning Semantic meaning The way we encode helps us to retain incoming data

14 Figure 3.5 The Memory Process

15 Information Retrieval for Purchase Decisions
Retrieving information often requires appropriate factors and cues: Physiological factors Situational factors

16 The Marketing Power of Nostalgia
Marketers may resurrect popular characters to evoke fond memories of the past Nostalgia Retro brand

17 Chapter 3: Learning and Memory Key Concepts
Behavioral learning theories Classical conditioning Instrumental conditioning Repetition Stimulus generalization Cognitive learning theories Observational learning process Role of memory in learning The memory process Information coding Information retrieval Nostalgia in marketing Retro brands

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