2IntroductionLearned connections between products and memories are a potent way to build brand loyaltyIt is an ongoing processRelatively a permanent change in behavior caused by experienceExperience may even be by observing
3The Learning ProcessMuch of our learning happens intentionally (intentional learning).We carefully search for informationWe learn even when we are not trying- recognizing ad jinglesThis casual and unintentional acquiring of knowledge is called incidental learning
4Behavioral Learning Theories Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.View is represented by two major approaches to learning:1) Classical Conditioning2) Instrumental ConditioningPeople’s experiences shaped by feedback they receive as they go through lifeActions result in rewards and punishments, which influences future responses to similar situations.
5Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Naturally capable of causing a response. (meat powder)Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Does not initially cause a response (bell)Conditioned response (CR) – Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS (drooling). Eventually, through learned association and repetition, the CS will cause the CR.
6Classical Conditioning Stimulus generalization:Tendency of a stimulus similar to a CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses (imitations can dampen the original brand)Masked branding: Deliberately hiding a product’s true originStimulus discrimination:Occurs when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS.
8Application of Stimulus generation Applications of Stimulus Generalization:Family brandingProduct line extensionsLook-alike packagingApplications of Stimulus Discrimination:Consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its competitorsUnique attributes of the brand
9Instrumental Conditioning Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviors that yield negative outcomesAlso called “Operant Conditioning”Occurs one of the two ways:Positive reinforcementNegative reinforcementExtinction: When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained.
12Applications of instrumental conditioning Reinforcement of Consumption:Thank youRebatesFollow-up phone callsFrequency Marketing:Reinforces regular purchases by giving them rewards with values that increase along with the amount purchasedFrequent flyer miles
13Cognitive Learning theory Stresses on the importance of internal mental processPeople are problem solvers, who actively use information
14Observational Learning Occurs when people watch the actions of others and note reinforcements received for their behaviorsLearning occurs as a result of vicarious, rather than direct, experience.This is also called as Modeling or vicarious learning
15Information Processing Very complex in nature, information's are kept temporarily in sequential storehouses before any further action takes placeSensory store/sensory memoryShort-term store (working memory)Long-term store