Presentation on theme: "Class 6 Learning and Memory CA 2018 Consumer Insight A.Kwanta Sirivajjanangkul A.Panitta Kanchanavasita Albert Laurence School of Communication Arts Department."— Presentation transcript:
Class 6 Learning and Memory CA 2018 Consumer Insight A.Kwanta Sirivajjanangkul A.Panitta Kanchanavasita Albert Laurence School of Communication Arts Department of Advertising 2013
Consumers as Individuals Process on how we absorb and interpret information about products. Perception The way we mentally store this information and how it adds to our exist knowledge during the learning process. Learning and Memory The reason or motivation to absorb this information and how our cultural values influence what we do. Motivation and Values Explores on how our views about ourselves affect what we do, want, and buy. The Self How people’s individual personalities influence these decision and how the choice we make help to define our lifestyles. Personality and Lifestyles How marketers form and change our attitudes. Attitudes and Persuasion
Chapter outline Learning and behavioral learning Theories. Classical, Instrumental, and Vicarious. Memory Process.
Why is it important for marketers to appreciate how consumers learn? Learning associations among feeling, events, and products – and the memories they evoke – are an important aspect of consumer behavior.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that experience causes. is an ongoing process. the learner need not to experience directly. We learn even we don’t try. Unintentional acquisition of knowledge = Incidental learning
Three Theoretical Schools of Learning Behavioral Theory Classical Conditioning Instrumental or Operant Conditioning Cognitive Theory Vicarious Learning
1. Classical Conditioning A non conscious process in which a previously neutral stimulus elicits a desired response. After a number of pairings a conditioned response is elicited by a previously neutral stimulus which now becomes the conditioned stimulus.
1. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov – Nobel prize winning work in 1930 Classically conditioned behaviours controlled by stimuli before the behaviour – the bell and meat powder precede salivation
1. Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalization Refer to to the tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses. – Hear similar noises salivate Halo Effect – People react to other, similar stimuli in much the same way they response to original Stimulus Discrimination Occur when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS.
Classical Conditioning in Marketing Conditioned StimulusConditioned ResponseExample Familiar pop/ classical music Relaxation, excitement “good will” capturing the moment Many Ad campaign OP/ KTC Familiar voicesExcitement, attention, borrowed authority Voice overs, personalities Sexy voices/imagesExcitement / attention arousal Fragrance ads, Levi Jeans, Diesel Familiar Social CuesFriendship/love/familyUse of children/ pets
2. Instrumental/Operant Conditioning Instrumental conditioning occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviours that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that produce negative outcomes Responses in classical conditioning are involuntary, responses in instrumental conditioning are deliberate in view of specific goals
Burrhus F. Skinner Behaviourism If behaviour can be predicted, it can be controlled; if behaviour can be controlled, life can be improved.
2. Instrumental/Operant Conditioning 3 ways: When the environment produces 1.Positive Responses The response is strengthened and appropriate behaviour is learned 2.Negative reinforcement Strengthens responses that avoid outcomes (Warning) 3.Punishment Occurs when behaviour is followed by unpleasant events we learn not to repeat these behaviours
Marketing Application: Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement The offer of a reward after every desired behaviour – Loyalty points Fixed Ratio Schedule Every x times that a behaviour is performed a reward is given – Buy 2 get 1 free Variable Ratio Schedule A reinforce on an average or random of x times – scratch cards, instant wins
Behavioral Theory vs. Cognitive Theory A considerable amount of learning takes place in the absence of direct reinforcement - negative or positive Individuals also learn through modelling or observational learning – They observe the behaviour of others, remember it and imitate it
Three Theoretical Schools of Learning Behavioral Theory 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Instrumental or Operant Conditioning Cognitive Theory 3. Vicarious Learning
Also called modelling, observational learning or imitative learning It refers to people change their behaviour because they observe the behaviour of others and its consequences
Marketing Application: Vicarious Learning - Modelling Acquire new responses – ex. Demonstration video in stores Decrease/inhibit undesired responses – ex. Ads of frustrated travels who did not use a travel agent compared to those who used Amex Travellers Cheques Response facilitation (not new behaviours) – ex. Ovaltine (2 cups/day)
Memory Process Any information from environment External Inputs Information is placed in Memory Encoding Information retained in memory Storage Information stored in memory is founded as needed Retrieval
Memory – remembering & forgetting Memory process of acquiring information, storing it over time and retrieving it when necessary 1.Sensory memory temporary storing of sensory information – seconds 2.Short term memory brief storage of information currently being used – minutes 3.Long term memory permanent storage of information 4.Retrieval physiological, situational, state dependent, familiarity recall, salience recall, pictorial/verbal clues