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Chapter 3 Learning and Memory 3-1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Learning and Memory 3-1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Learning and Memory 3-1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon

2 Theories of Learning Behavioral learning theories focus on stimulus-response connections Cognitive theories focus on consumers as problem solvers who learn when they observe relationships 2-2

3 3-3 Conditioning results in learning.

4 3-4 Types of Behavioral Learning Theories Classical Conditioning: a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Instrumental Conditioning (also, operant conditioning): the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes.

5 3-5 Classical Conditioning Components of Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response Conditioning Issues Repetition Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination

6 For Reflection How might classical conditioning operate for a consumer who visits a new tutoring Web site and is greeted by the website’s avatar who resembles Albert Einstein? 2-6

7 3-7 Marketing Applications of Repetition Repetition increases learning More exposures = increased brand awareness “Mere exposure effect” When exposure decreases, extinction occurs However, too MUCH exposure leads to message wear out Example: Izod crocodile on clothes

8 3-8 Marketing Applications of Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization: tendency for stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to evoke similar, unconditioned responses. Family branding Product line extensions Licensing Look-alike packaging

9 How Does Instrumental Conditioning Occur? Positive reinforcement Do a good job, get a bonus Negative reinforcement (remove aversive stimulus) Apply suntan lotion to avoid a sunburn Punishment (initiate aversive stimulus) Do 100 pushups for disobeying 3-9

10 3-10 Types of Reinforcement

11 For Reflection What kind of reinforcement is being used when stores offer loyalty programs? What kind of reinforcement is being used when customers are charged late fees? 2-11

12 We learn about products by observing others’ behavior. 2-12

13 For Reflection To what extent do you emulate a celebrity’s choices? How does this differ for celebrities who are overtly endorsing a brand versus those who have an “organic” relationship with the brand? 2-13

14 Our brains process information about brands to retain them in memory. 2-14

15 3-15 Memory Systems

16 Other concepts we associate with an individual product influence how we will remember it. 2-16

17 3-17 Spreading Activation Brand-specific Ad-specific Brand identification Product category Evaluative reactions

18 Scripts We rely on Scripts to set our expectations for product and service encounters Examples of scripts: Flying Eating out Doctor Visits 2-18

19 Retrieval Unique images are more easily retrieved from memory. 2-19

20 3-20 Understanding When We Remember & Forget Memory Decay vs. Interference (proactive vs. retroactive) State-dependent retrieval Salience / Recall and the “Von Restorff” effect Unipolar vs. Mixed Emotions

21 Marketers measure our memories about products and ads. 2-21

22 3-22 Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli Recognition versus Recall Problems with memory measures Response biases Memory lapses Omitting Averaging Telescoping (time distortion) Illusion of truth effect Sleeper effect

23 3-23 The Marketing Power of Nostalgia Marketers may resurrect popular characters to evoke fond memories of the past Nostalgia Retro brand


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