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Muslim Civilization 550 - 1250 The Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, built between 706 and 715. One of the oldest and largest monuments in the Islamic.

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Presentation on theme: "Muslim Civilization 550 - 1250 The Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, built between 706 and 715. One of the oldest and largest monuments in the Islamic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muslim Civilization The Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, built between 706 and 715. One of the oldest and largest monuments in the Islamic world. Not just a place of worship, but also a religious school, law court, hospital, homeless shelter, and place for political gatherings.

2 What is Islam? 2nd most commonly practiced religion in the world today
Started in the Arabian Peninsula around 600 Is a monotheistic belief Founded by Muhammad

3 Muhammad Merchant who Muslims believe was the last prophet, reported that he received messages from God. The religion he taught – Islam – drew many followers.

4 Islam vs. Muslim One who follows Islam The religion Islam Muslim

5 The Origins of Islam: The Arabian Peninsula

6 Setting Harsh land with a vast desert interior
Some 1,500 years ago, sparsely populated Bedouins Small bands of nomadic Arabs Moved their herds between scattered oases

7 In Arabia…. Farming was limited
Commerce was lively because trade routes converged at the Arabian Peninsula Towns that depended on trade rose near the Arabian Peninsula’s coasts

8 Mecca Emerged the most important trading town Located near the Red Sea
Had a religious function besides being a center of trade Was home to the Kaaba – a huge cube shaped structure

9 AA closer look at Mecca: How did the city of Mecca come to be?
According to Islamic teachings, Hagar & her son Ishmael were alone in the Arabian desert. Ishmael’s father, the Biblical patriarch Abraham, had taken them there to keep them safe from Abraham’s jealous wife. Yet the place where Abraham left them was hot & dry. Hagar searched desperately for water but found none. In frustration, she fell to the ground & called out to God, who answered the call by bringing forth a spring of pure water.

10 Birth of Mecca (con’t.) Later Abraham returned to the desert.
Finding the spring, he built a cube-shaped stone structure to honor God. Over the centuries, the water continued to flow. People came from near & far to drink from the well & to visit the stone monument, called the Kaaba. A settlement built up around the two attractions. For more than a billion people, this story explains the origins of Mecca, a city with a central role in Islam.

11 The Kaaba In the 500s, it was an ancient building that was already considered sacred Built into one of its walls, was a stone, possibly a meteorite, said to be a relic from heaven. Inside the structure were idols – small statutes of local gods. It drew many pilgrims.

12 Note: Many gods & goddesses were worshipped in mecca
Note: Many gods & goddesses were worshipped in mecca. HOWEVER, one god was considered supreme, at least by the tribe who had founded Mecca. They called the supreme god allah.

13 Muhammad’s Childhood Born approx. 570 CE Was an orphan
Raised by his uncle, Abu Talib, a powerful clan leader

14 Muhammad: Young Adult Grew up to have a successful career in Mecca as a Merchant Respected by other merchants for his fairness & intelligence Married at age 25 His wife was a widow named Khadijah She was older than him and had been his employer. Together, they had six kids BUT only one survived – a daughter - Fatimah

15 Muhammad Travelled on business
Encountered followers of Judaism & Christianity Had only been a religious man Was known to leave his home for extended periods of time to live in a cave – to pray & reflect on spiritual matters. Had a life changing experience – for him AND world history – on one such retreat in 610.

16 610 CE “The Experience” Said he awoke from sleep to find himself in the presence of an angel who commanded him to speak messages, or revelations, from Allah – God. Was initially troubled by the visitation & unsure of its meaning. Told only Khadijah at first & she tried to help. Had additional visits & concluded that God had chosen him, a humble merchant, to be his prophet. *eventually a political leader, too.

17 The Revelations: Muhammad reported many messages from the angel.
Allah was the one and only true & all-powerful God. Others included instructions about how people should live… To please Allah To live in Paradise after death

18 Muhammad: the messenger… public preaching began
Started 3 years after initial experiences Attracted a number of followers Triggered anger from powerful Meccans who did not accept monotheism Caused fear and tension among local innkeepers who profited from the pilgrimage trade (didn’t want business interrupted) Was protected only by his uncle Abu Talib

19 Uncle Abu Talib died in 619 Muhammad knew that he and his followers were NOT safe in Mecca!

20 Movin’ On! 622 CE Moved from Mecca to Yathrib
Became called “Medina” – city of the Prophet Journey came to be called the hegira (hijra) Later Muslims marked this year as the first year in the Islamic calendar

21 Sharing the Revelations
Firmly establishes Islam – “achieving peace through submission to God” Anti-Muhammad Meccans fought battles with him but eventually lost. By 630, Muhammad controlled Mecca & his influence in western Arabia was unmatched!

22 Muhammad and Medina Today the city’s enormous mosque draws Muslims from around the world!

23 Islam: The Basics – sacred text
Muhammad, illiterate, recited his revelations Followers memorized his words and followers wrote them down. Believed to be the direct revelations from God and recorded into the Qur’an – the sacred text of Islam The Koran aka Qur’an

24 The Qur’an Divided in 114 chapters, called suras (soo-ruhz)
Suras vary widely in length Each sura opens with the same phrase: “In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.”

25 The Koran: A closer Look…
Muslims believe that Allah created the world. Analyze the following passage and find textual evidence reflecting that belief. The Koran: A closer Look…

26 Sura 55 (The Merciful): 1-25 In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful It is the Merciful who has taught the Qur’an. He created man and taught him articulate speech. The sun and moon pursue their ordered course. The plants and trees bow down in adoration.

27 He raised the heaven on high and set the balance of all things, that you might not transgress it. Give just weight and full measure. He laid the earth for His creatures, with all its fruits and blossom-bearing palm, chaff-covered grain and scented herbs. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny? He created man from potter’s clay... Which of the Lord’s blessings would you deny? …

28 …. He has let loose the two oceans: they meet one another
….He has let loose the two oceans: they meet one another. Yet between them stands a barrier which they cannot overrun. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny? Pearls and corals come from both. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny? His are the ships that sail like banners upon the ocean. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny?



31 1st Pillar: Profession of Faith (shahada)
“There is no god but God [Allah], and Muhammad is the messenger of God.” Denies the existence of the many gods/ goddesses that many Arabs had worshipped Makes clear that Muhammad was human – a prophet rather than a deity

32 2nd Pillar: Prayer – 5 times a day
Worshippers always face Mecca to pray – no matter where they are

33 5 Pillars of Islam: Alms-giving
Giving of alms, or charity, to the poor & other needy people Are supposed to give a certain percentage of their income Those who have little are encouraged to help others in some way…

34 5 Pillars of Islam: Fasting during Ramadan
Fasting – to go without food or drink – From dawn to dusk During the month of Ramadan Shows that God is more important than one’s own body Note: It was during Ramadan that Muhammad began reporting the messages that were recorded in the Koran

35 5 Pillars of Islam: The Hajj
Expected of all Muslims physically & financially able Once in a lifetime Gather to pray in the city’s mosque Perform various rituals, such as walking 7 times around the Kaaba Walk to nearby Mount Arafat, where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermon Journey to Mecca What pilgrims do

36 Impact TODAY: up to 4 million people go to Mecca for the hajj each year

37 Koran: Guidelines for Behavior
Forbidden to eat pork Forbidden to drink alcoholic beverages Must wash themselves before praying – to be “clean/ pure” before God Regulates relational behavior NO murder NO lying NO stealing NO sex outside marriage

38 Another requirement: jihad
Translated as “struggle for the faith” Can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community Historically, to convert people to Islam “holy war”

39 The Sunna and Sharia: provide models of behavior for Muslims to follow
Means “tradition” Arabic for “habitual practice” Tells how Muhammad acted in his daily life Record of Muhammad’s behavior and teachings Includes 100s of individual lessons or reports on Muhammad’s actions Provides guidance in many areas Personal relationships Business dealings Religious practices Each individual report in the sunna on Muhammad’s actions is known as a hadith Sunna

40 Info to know: about the hadith
Sunna is 2nd only to the Qur’an & contain hadiths – lessons on Muhammad.. By the 800s CE, there were over 600,000 recorded . Later readers edited this massive collection down to 25,000. Info to know: about the hadith

41 Islamic texts

42 Sharia: Islamic Law Outlines a method of reasoning and argument for legal cases Numerous schools of thought have contributed to its creation NOT recorded in a single book Consists of opinions & writings over several centuries *Differences in interpretation vary among the many people within the Islamic world.

43 Relationship to Judaism & Christianity
Allah (name of God in Arabic) = same God of Jews & Christians Abraham, Moses, & Jesus = messengers (prophets) from God *Exception: Muhammad is seen as the last of God’s prophets. Torah & Bible come from Allah BUT Koran is greatest – final message to humanity

44 People of the Book = Jews and Christians
Koran 29: 46 “Do not argue with the followers of earlier revelation otherwise than in a most kindly manner – unless it be such of them as are bent on evil-doing- and say: “We believe in that which has been bestowed from on high upon us, as well as that which has been bestowed upon you; for our God and your God is one and the same.’” Are to be respected by Muslims Same God Same prophets

45 Time out! Section Assessment

46 Answer Question Comprehension Check…
Where did Islam begin AND what were some major features of this area 1,500 years ago? Arabian Peninsula Harsh land with desert interior Sparsely populated Limited farming Much commerce Question Answer

47 Explain. In what two ways was Mecca an important settlement?
Economic significance: Trading town Source of wealth Exchange of goods AND ideas Religious signficance: Contained the Kaaba – an important religious pilgrimage site

48 Evaluate. What influence may Muhammad’s early years as a trader have had on his ideas? Was exposed to Jews and Christians, whose faiths influenced him  monotheism Would have encountered moral vs. immoral living

49 Many were angered by his criticism of their traditional beliefs.
Local innkeepers were afraid that Muhammad’s preachings would disrupt the flow of pilgrims. (loss of $) Recall. How was Muhammad’s preaching received in Mecca?

50 Infer. Represents the beginning of Islam
Based on its connection to the Muslim calendar, what can you infer about the importance of the hegira to Muslims?

51 Predict. Other ideas? Through his recitation of revelations The Qur’an
What does Muhammad’s experience suggest about how Islam was to spread? Through his recitation of revelations The Qur’an Other ideas?

52 Recall. What are the 5 Pillars of Islam? 1. Shahada. 2. Prayer – 5 x
3. Charity 4. Ramadan 5. Hajj

53 What are some other requirements of devout Muslims?
No pork No alcoholic beverages Washing before prayer No murder No stealing No lying No sex outside marriage Jihad

54 Identify. 1. The Qur’an 2. The Sunna 3. The Shar’ia
What are key sources of religious wisdom and guidance for Muslims? 1. The Qur’an 2. The Sunna 3. The Shar’ia

55 Compare. What do Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have in common?
All believe in the same God – monotheistic* Believe that the sacred writings of Christians and Jews also came from Allah

56 The Spread of Islam

57 Spread of Islam After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian peninsula, shaping a MAJOR empire with 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread.

58 A devastating loss: How does a community choose a new leader?
For the first Muslims, Muhammad was more than God’s messenger. He was also the UNQUESTIONED leader of their community. But Muhammad was a mortal man. Not long after he & his fellow Muslims regained control of Mecca, Muhammad knew his death was approaching. “O people, lend me an attentive ear,” he told his followers, “for I do not know whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again.”

59 632 CE: Muhammad dies. What would happen next?
Some bedouin tribes that had been personally loyal to Muhammad began to break away, so strong leadership was needed. In this midst of this uncertainty, who would the community choose?

60 Islam after Muhammad… Successors
Muhammad had NOT named a successor There was no clear cut candidate

61 Abu Bakr becomes caliph!
Called “caliph” or successor One of Muhammad’s closest friends One of the earliest converts to Islam

62 Abu Bakr, 1st caliph Focused on bringing back the bedouin tribes whose support was fading Established strong Arab fighting forces Reunified the Arabia Led his armies north

63 Abu Bakr: led aggressive expansion
From Iraq to Persia, the Arab army turned west to face the wealthy Byzantine Empire, which was the eastern half of the old Roman Empire. Byzantines first lost Damascus, Syria, & Jerusalem. In 639: Byzantine Province of Egypt fell By 642: Rest of Nile Valley fell ONLY 10 YRS. AFTER MUHAMMAD’S DEATH, HIS FOLLOWERS CREATED AN EMPIRE!

64 Conquests continued – caliphate grew (area ruled by a caliph)
- Conquests continued – caliphate grew (area ruled by a caliph)


66 Internal Conflict & Division
Despite the successes of military conquests, there was deep trouble within the Muslim leadership. Origins go back to who would succeed Muhammad: Some wanted Abu Bakr Others support Ali – a cousin of Muhammad’s & the husband of his daughter, Fatimah

67 644 CE: another caliph had to be chosen. Ali lost again
644 CE: another caliph had to be chosen Ali lost again Uthman, supported by the powerful Umayyad clan, of Mecca was chosen!


69 Umayyads were unpopular  Uthman is killed.  Ali is named caliph
Umayyads were unpopular  Uthman is killed!  Ali is named caliph!  Civil War between Ali’s supporters & the Umayyads  Ali is killed & Umayyads retook control…

70 Now what?

71 Umayyad Caliph: Mu’awiya
Reluctantly accepted by most Muslims Were called Sunnis – “followers of the Sunna” or “way of the prophet” Ali’s supporters REFUSED to accept the Umayyads Became known as the Shia – means “party of Ali” Believed that God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants because they were Muhammad’s true heirs. Sunnis Shia

72 Sufi Shia Islamic Sects Call each of Ali’s successors, imam
Imam = leader For the Shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’an Sunni – Shia split exists to this day Seek a mystical, personal connection with God. Use a range of practices, including breath control & meditation, in their rituals. Known for dancing Shia Sufi


74 Sunni – Shia Divide

75 Umayyad Dynasty 661 – 750 CE Umayyad mosque in Damascus, Syria

76 Umayyad dynasty Made Arabic the official language Used uniform coinage
Began the first great work of Islamic architecture – the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

77 Successes Failures Umayyad Expansion
To the East, Armies conquered lands from the borders of China & the Indus River Valley. To the West, forces took North Africa, crossed the Mediterranean, & took control of most of Spain. Couldn’t take Constantinople in 717 Wasn’t able to push beyond Spain into France – defeated at the Battle of Tours in 732 Successes Failures

78 Ruling its Empire As the caliphate grew, Umayyads strengthened its central gov’t. Growing dissatisfaction with Arab Muslims becoming the ruling class. Had power & privilege unavailable to those conquered Conflicted with the Muslim ideal of equality Concern over emphasis on political ambition

79 End of the Umayyads Widespread displeasure Continued Shia opposition
Claims of (unfair) favoritism among the Umayyads toward certain families Time was ripe for rebellion Abbasid family unite many opponents In a series of battles in the late 740s in Iran & Iraq, they wiped out almost all of the Umayyad family. Caliphate entered a new phase: the Abbasid Dynasty

80 The Abbasid Dynasty Relocated the capital of the caliphate to Baghdad (now Iraq) Heavy Persian Influence: Adopted a Persian style of gov’t in which they cut themselves off from the people Example: in the throne room – the caliph was hidden behind a screen – couldn’t be seen

81 A Changing Culture Turned Islam into a truly universal religion that attracted people of many cultures Trade flourished – exchange of goods & ideas – carried Islam to West Africa & SE Asia Lively trade was a source of great wealth – funding grand cultural achievements

82 Abbasid Dynasty: A Golden Age
Caliph Huran al-Rashid Ruled from 786 – 809 Most prominent Abbasid caliph Brought Muslim culture to great heights Supported scholarship Lasting achievements in arts & sciences

83 Abbasid Dynasty: The End of Unity
Problems: Challenges from Europe – Christian Armies Problems from Egypt – Fatimids (claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter) – controlled the Mediterranean & Red Seas, disrupted Abbasid trade – grew richer & more powerful than the Abbasids Seljuk Turks – grew in power to the point of creating their own empire Mamluks (from Syria & Egypt) & Mongols (China / Central Asia) – attack         By the 900s, growing # of small states broke away Caliph increasingly became a powerless figurehead


85 End of the abbasid: Mongols arrived in Baghdad – destroyed the city – killed the caliph – caliphate was finished. *However, Islam survives.

86 Time out! Section Assessment

87 Reviewing Key People Who was Abu Bakr? First successor to Muhammad

88 Recall What was the name of the first dynasty to gain control of the caliphate? Umayyad

89 Describe What features marked the Abbasid style of rule?
Persian style of Government Little contact with the people

90 Evaluate Flourishing of Muslim, culture, art, and science “Golden Age”
For what do you think the Abbasids should be remembered? “Golden Age” Flourishing of Muslim, culture, art, and science

91 Recall Who were the Fatamids, Seljuk Turks, and Mamluks?
Groups that challenged the caliph’s power

92 Evaluate Evaluate this statement: Even though the caliphate ended, its influence lasted for thousands of years. True! Today Islam is a major world religion. Conflicts that began during the caliphate continue. Still Sunni vs Shia

93 Islam: Society & Culture
For the first Muslims, Islam was more than a religion. It was a guide to political, social, and cultural life. The early Muslims responded with spectacular achievement in many fields!

94 Man of Many Talents: Ibn Sina
The Persian scholar Ibn Sina, aka Avicenna, first mastered philosophy and religion. Then he gained fame as a physician & trained other doctors who came to him for guidance. While teaching & treating the sick, he began to study law. Was there anything Ibn Sina couldn’t do? Wait, have you ever heard of Ibn Sina?!

95 16 years old! After all these efforts, surely sina had reached an old age. How old was he?

96 At age 17… Ibn Sina cured a powerful local leader of a disease that had frustrated other doctors. For his reward, the famous doctor asked only to use his patient’s library. Ibn Sina contributed to medical libraries of the future by compiling a massive encylopedia of known medical knowledge.

97 Does he remind you of any one?
But that’s not all… In addition to medicine, he contributed to mathematics, astronomy, music, poetry, and other fields. His lifelong achievements exemplify the tremendous accomplishments of Muslim scholars & artists. Their work left an enduring legacy! Does he remind you of any one?

98 The Family & Women Patriarchal Man – head of the family
Men – could have several wives BUT had to treat them equally

99 According to the Koran Women are equal to men before Allah
Women can inherit property & seek divorce in certain circumstances

100 Slavery Common throughout Muslim lands
Most came from non-Muslim regions Some, who had been purchased by wealthy, privileged members of society, became well educated. Like the Bible, the Quran did NOT condemn it but required that slaves be treated fairly

101 More about slavery… Slaves had the right to buy their freedom.
Was a part of society & economy Muslim merchants traded slaves over a wide area

102 Economy Built largely on commerce
Think geography! – Ancient Trade routes crossed the Arabian Peninsula Muslim merchants followed routes that extended NW to Spain and SE to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. Some merchants were “middlemen” – connecting suppliers in the East to markets in the West.

103 More on trade Some produced & traded agricultural products &goods such as finely crafted iron goods. Expanded the use of coinage – easing long-distance commerce Used standardized weights and measures Extended credit to buyers over long distances More on what was traded Improvements in trade

104 Value/ Impact of Trade: provided wealth  led to splendid cities like Baghdad helped spread the faith to distant lands!

105 Muslim Scholarship: A culture of learning

106 Islamic believers were commanded to examine their world & seek evidence of Allah in its wonders.
This atttitude promotes curiosity & inquiry. Why?

107 Valuable contributions of Muslim scholars: translations into Arabic of ancient Greek works
Abbasids – had an academy in Baghdad called “The House of Wisdom” for this purpose

108 Astronomy Some stars such as Aldebaran, still bear the names given them by their Muslim discoverers Built observatories Perfected the astrolabe – Sailors used it for latitude & longitude Could also be used for direction – find direction toward Mecca for prayer

109 Mathematics Adopted 0 – 9 from India Algebra Trigonometry
By the time this system got to Europe, they were called Arabic numerals Algebra Trigonometry

110 Meet al-KWARIZMI c. 780 – c.850 Father of Algebra
Created to solve a practical problem! Islamic law required inheritances be divided according to proportions. Figuring out how much each heir should receive was made easier with algebra. Recommended algebra for settling lawsuits, business deals, measuring land, and digging canals.

111 Thank the Muslim scholar: Muhmamad ibn Musa al-Kwarizmi
Are you taking Algebra?

112 Medicine Doctors in Baghdad had to pass rigorous tests before they could practice! (should sound familiar!!!!) Baghdad – home to the world’s first school of pharmacy Performed eye surgery!!!! – used a hollow needled instrument to draw out a film that caused blindness (cataracts?!?)

113 Medicine: Ibn Sina Persian doctor Aka Avicenna
Probably the most famous medical scholar of his time Contributed to medicine, psychology, logic, and music!

114 Islamic Art Featured wide range of materials wood metal ceramics
textiles Shared religious style: Generally does NOT contain ANY human or animal figures Muslims believe that such portrayals can tempt people to worship those images. Geometric patterns and floral designs prevail

115 Islamic Art Architecture: domes and minarets
Calligraphy: “spiritual geometry produced with material tools” Architecture: domes and minarets

116 Time out! Section Assessment

117 Describe…. How did the role of women change during the Abbasid caliphate? They lost status/ freedom Were confined to harems. Had to cover hair Sometimes wore veils

118 Evaluate: True or False?
“The Koran and other Muslim scriptures deal strictly with religious topics.” False! Defines family roles, sets rules for behavior, treatment of slaves, trade relations

119 What were some Muslim contributions to astronomy?
Discovered stars Created an accurate calendar based on observations of “heavenly bodies” Perfected the astrolabe

120 Explain. What was Muslim contributions to math?
Adopted the spread of units 0 -9 – borrowed from India and spread it so that they are now referred to as Arabic numerals Algebra Trigonometry

121 Explain What was the connection between Muslim scholars and those of ancient Greece? Many ancient Greek works were translated into Arabic and studied, which stimulated further study. Baghdad’s House of Widsom

122 One more question… last but not least 
What are some unique characteristics of Islamic art? No animals and No people Geometric patterns and floral designs Domes Minarets Calligraphy Poetry Literature – 1001 Nights or the Arabian Nights

123 This concludes the lecture on Islam: 600 – 1450.

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