Presentation on theme: "Muslim Civilization 550 - 1250 The Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, built between 706 and 715. One of the oldest and largest monuments in the Islamic."— Presentation transcript:
1Muslim CivilizationThe Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, built between 706 and 715.One of the oldest and largest monuments in the Islamic world.Not just a place of worship, but also a religious school, law court, hospital, homeless shelter, and place for political gatherings.
2What is Islam? 2nd most commonly practiced religion in the world today Started in the Arabian Peninsula around 600Is a monotheistic beliefFounded by Muhammad
3MuhammadMerchant who Muslims believe was the last prophet, reported that he received messages from God.The religion he taught – Islam – drew many followers.
4Islam vs. MuslimOne who follows IslamThe religionIslamMuslim
6Setting Harsh land with a vast desert interior Some 1,500 years ago, sparsely populatedBedouinsSmall bands of nomadic ArabsMoved their herds between scattered oases
7In Arabia…. Farming was limited Commerce was lively because trade routes converged at the Arabian PeninsulaTowns that depended on trade rose near the Arabian Peninsula’s coasts
8Mecca Emerged the most important trading town Located near the Red Sea Had a religious function besides being a center of tradeWas home to the Kaaba – a huge cube shaped structure
9AA closer look at Mecca: How did the city of Mecca come to be? According to Islamic teachings, Hagar & her son Ishmael were alone in the Arabian desert.Ishmael’s father, the Biblical patriarch Abraham, had taken them there to keep them safe from Abraham’s jealous wife.Yet the place where Abraham left them was hot & dry.Hagar searched desperately for water but found none.In frustration, she fell to the ground & called out to God, who answered the call by bringing forth a spring of pure water.
10Birth of Mecca (con’t.) Later Abraham returned to the desert. Finding the spring, he built a cube-shaped stone structure to honor God.Over the centuries, the water continued to flow.People came from near & far to drink from the well & to visit the stone monument, called the Kaaba.A settlement built up around the two attractions.For more than a billion people, this story explains the origins of Mecca, a city with a central role in Islam.
11The KaabaIn the 500s, it was an ancient building that was already considered sacredBuilt into one of its walls, was a stone, possibly a meteorite, said to be a relic from heaven.Inside the structure were idols – small statutes of local gods.It drew many pilgrims.
12Note: Many gods & goddesses were worshipped in mecca Note: Many gods & goddesses were worshipped in mecca. HOWEVER, one god was considered supreme, at least by the tribe who had founded Mecca. They called the supreme god allah.
13Muhammad’s Childhood Born approx. 570 CE Was an orphan Raised by his uncle, Abu Talib, a powerful clan leader
14Muhammad: Young AdultGrew up to have a successful career in Mecca as a MerchantRespected by other merchants for his fairness & intelligenceMarried at age 25His wife was a widow named KhadijahShe was older than him and had been his employer.Together, they had six kids BUT only one survived – a daughter - Fatimah
15Muhammad Travelled on business Encountered followers of Judaism & ChristianityHad only been a religious manWas known to leave his home for extended periods of time to live in a cave – to pray & reflect on spiritual matters.Had a life changing experience – for him AND world history – on one such retreat in 610.
16610 CE “The Experience”Said he awoke from sleep to find himself in the presence of an angel who commanded him to speak messages, or revelations, from Allah – God.Was initially troubled by the visitation & unsure of its meaning.Told only Khadijah at first & she tried to help.Had additional visits & concluded that God had chosen him, a humble merchant, to be his prophet. *eventually a political leader, too.
17The Revelations: Muhammad reported many messages from the angel. Allah was the one and only true & all-powerful God.Others included instructions about how people should live…To please AllahTo live in Paradise after death
18Muhammad: the messenger… public preaching began Started 3 years after initial experiencesAttracted a number of followersTriggered anger from powerful Meccans who did not accept monotheismCaused fear and tension among local innkeepers who profited from the pilgrimage trade (didn’t want business interrupted)Was protected only by his uncle Abu Talib
19Uncle Abu Talib died in 619Muhammad knew that he and his followers were NOT safe in Mecca!
20Movin’ On! 622 CE Moved from Mecca to Yathrib Became called “Medina” – city of the ProphetJourney came to be called the hegira (hijra)Later Muslims marked this year as the first year in the Islamic calendar
21Sharing the Revelations Firmly establishes Islam – “achieving peace through submission to God”Anti-Muhammad Meccans fought battles with him but eventually lost.By 630, Muhammad controlled Mecca & his influence in western Arabia was unmatched!
22Muhammad and MedinaToday the city’s enormous mosque draws Muslims from around the world!
23Islam: The Basics – sacred text Muhammad, illiterate, recited his revelationsFollowers memorized his words and followers wrote them down.Believed to be the direct revelations from God and recorded into the Qur’an – the sacred text of IslamThe Koranaka Qur’an
24The Qur’an Divided in 114 chapters, called suras (soo-ruhz) Suras vary widely in lengthEach sura opens with the same phrase: “In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.”
25The Koran: A closer Look… Muslims believe that Allah created the world. Analyze the following passage and find textual evidence reflecting that belief.The Koran: A closer Look…
26Sura 55 (The Merciful): 1-25In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the MercifulIt is the Merciful who has taught the Qur’an.He created man and taught him articulate speech.The sun and moon pursue their ordered course. The plants and trees bow down in adoration.
27He raised the heaven on high and set the balance of all things, that you might not transgress it. Give just weight and full measure.He laid the earth for His creatures, with all its fruits and blossom-bearing palm, chaff-covered grain and scented herbs. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny?He created man from potter’s clay... Which of the Lord’s blessings would you deny? …
28…. He has let loose the two oceans: they meet one another ….He has let loose the two oceans: they meet one another. Yet between them stands a barrier which they cannot overrun. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny?Pearls and corals come from both. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny?His are the ships that sail like banners upon the ocean. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny?
311st Pillar: Profession of Faith (shahada) “There is no god but God [Allah], and Muhammad is the messenger of God.”Denies the existence of the many gods/ goddesses that many Arabs had worshippedMakes clear that Muhammad was human – a prophet rather than a deity
322nd Pillar: Prayer – 5 times a day Worshippers always face Mecca to pray – no matter where they are
335 Pillars of Islam: Alms-giving Giving of alms, or charity, to the poor & other needy peopleAre supposed to give a certain percentage of their incomeThose who have little are encouraged to help others in some way…
345 Pillars of Islam: Fasting during Ramadan Fasting – to go without food or drink –From dawn to duskDuring the month of RamadanShows that God is more important than one’s own bodyNote: It was during Ramadan that Muhammad began reporting the messages that were recorded inthe Koran
355 Pillars of Islam: The Hajj Expected of all Muslims physically & financially ableOnce in a lifetimeGather to pray in the city’s mosquePerform various rituals, such as walking 7 times around the KaabaWalk to nearby Mount Arafat, where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermonJourney to MeccaWhat pilgrims do
36Impact TODAY: up to 4 million people go to Mecca for the hajj each year
37Koran: Guidelines for Behavior Forbidden to eat porkForbidden to drink alcoholic beveragesMust wash themselves before praying – to be “clean/ pure” before GodRegulates relational behaviorNO murderNO lyingNO stealingNO sex outside marriage
38Another requirement: jihad Translated as “struggle for the faith”Can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim communityHistorically, to convert people to Islam“holy war”
39The Sunna and Sharia: provide models of behavior for Muslims to follow Means “tradition”Arabic for “habitual practice”Tells how Muhammad acted in his daily lifeRecord of Muhammad’s behavior and teachingsIncludes 100s of individual lessons or reports on Muhammad’s actionsProvides guidance in many areasPersonal relationshipsBusiness dealingsReligious practicesEach individual report in the sunna on Muhammad’s actions is known as a hadithSunna
40Info to know: about the hadith Sunna is 2nd only to the Qur’an & contain hadiths – lessons on Muhammad..By the 800s CE, there were over 600,000 recorded .Later readers edited this massive collection down to 25,000.Info to know: about the hadith
42Sharia: Islamic LawOutlines a method of reasoning and argument for legal casesNumerous schools of thought have contributed to its creationNOT recorded in a single bookConsists of opinions & writings over several centuries*Differences in interpretation vary among the many people within the Islamic world.
43Relationship to Judaism & Christianity Allah (name of God in Arabic) = same God of Jews & ChristiansAbraham, Moses, & Jesus = messengers (prophets) from God*Exception: Muhammad is seen as the last of God’s prophets.Torah & Bible come from Allah BUT Koran is greatest – final message to humanity
44People of the Book = Jews and Christians Koran 29: 46“Do not argue with the followers of earlier revelation otherwise than in a most kindly manner – unless it be such of them as are bent on evil-doing- and say: “We believe in that which has been bestowed from on high upon us, as well as that which has been bestowed upon you; for our God and your God is one and the same.’”Are to be respected by MuslimsSame GodSame prophets
46Answer Question Comprehension Check… Where did Islam begin AND what were some major features of this area 1,500 years ago?Arabian PeninsulaHarsh land with desert interiorSparsely populatedLimited farmingMuch commerceQuestionAnswer
47Explain. In what two ways was Mecca an important settlement? Economic significance: Trading townSource of wealthExchange of goods AND ideasReligious signficance:Contained the Kaaba –an important religious pilgrimage site
48Evaluate.What influence may Muhammad’s early years as a trader have had on his ideas?Was exposed to Jews and Christians, whose faiths influenced him monotheismWould have encountered moral vs. immoral living
49Many were angered by his criticism of their traditional beliefs. Local innkeepers were afraid that Muhammad’s preachings would disrupt the flow of pilgrims. (loss of $)Recall.How was Muhammad’s preaching received in Mecca?
50Infer. Represents the beginning of Islam Based on its connection to the Muslim calendar, what can you infer about the importance of the hegira to Muslims?
51Predict. Other ideas? Through his recitation of revelations The Qur’an What does Muhammad’s experience suggest about how Islam was to spread?Through his recitation of revelationsThe Qur’anOther ideas?
52Recall. What are the 5 Pillars of Islam? 1. Shahada. 2. Prayer – 5 x 3. Charity4. Ramadan5. Hajj
53What are some other requirements of devout Muslims? No porkNo alcoholic beveragesWashing before prayerNo murderNo stealingNo lyingNo sex outside marriageJihad
54Identify. 1. The Qur’an 2. The Sunna 3. The Shar’ia What are key sources of religious wisdom and guidance for Muslims?1. The Qur’an2. The Sunna3. The Shar’ia
55Compare. What do Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have in common? All believe in the same God – monotheistic*Believe that the sacred writings of Christians and Jews also came from Allah
57Spread of IslamAfter Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian peninsula, shaping a MAJOR empire with 100 years.While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread.
58A devastating loss: How does a community choose a new leader? For the first Muslims, Muhammad was more than God’s messenger. He was also the UNQUESTIONED leader of their community.But Muhammad was a mortal man.Not long after he & his fellow Muslims regained control of Mecca, Muhammad knew his death was approaching.“O people, lend me an attentive ear,” he told his followers, “for I do not know whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again.”
59632 CE: Muhammad dies. What would happen next? Some bedouin tribes that had been personally loyal to Muhammad began to break away, so strong leadership was needed.In this midst of this uncertainty, who would the community choose?
60Islam after Muhammad… Successors Muhammad had NOT named a successorThere was no clear cut candidate
61Abu Bakr becomes caliph! Called “caliph” or successorOne of Muhammad’s closest friendsOne of the earliest converts to Islam
62Abu Bakr, 1st caliphFocused on bringing back the bedouin tribes whose support was fadingEstablished strong Arab fighting forcesReunified the ArabiaLed his armies north
63Abu Bakr: led aggressive expansion From Iraq to Persia, the Arab army turned west to face the wealthy Byzantine Empire, which was the eastern half of the old Roman Empire.Byzantines first lost Damascus, Syria, & Jerusalem.In 639: Byzantine Province of Egypt fellBy 642: Rest of Nile Valley fellONLY 10 YRS. AFTER MUHAMMAD’S DEATH, HIS FOLLOWERS CREATED AN EMPIRE!
64Conquests continued – caliphate grew (area ruled by a caliph) -Conquests continued – caliphate grew (area ruled by a caliph)
66Internal Conflict & Division Despite the successes of military conquests, there was deep trouble within the Muslim leadership.Origins go back to who would succeed Muhammad:Some wanted Abu BakrOthers support Ali – a cousin of Muhammad’s & the husband of his daughter, Fatimah
67644 CE: another caliph had to be chosen. Ali lost again 644 CE: another caliph had to be chosen Ali lost again Uthman, supported by the powerful Umayyad clan, of Mecca was chosen!
69Umayyads were unpopular Uthman is killed. Ali is named caliph Umayyads were unpopular Uthman is killed! Ali is named caliph! Civil War between Ali’s supporters & the Umayyads Ali is killed & Umayyads retook control…
71Umayyad Caliph: Mu’awiya Reluctantly accepted by most MuslimsWere called Sunnis – “followers of the Sunna” or “way of the prophet”Ali’s supporters REFUSED to accept the UmayyadsBecame known as the Shia – means “party of Ali”Believed that God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants because they were Muhammad’s true heirs.SunnisShia
72Sufi Shia Islamic Sects Call each of Ali’s successors, imam Imam = leaderFor the Shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’anSunni – Shia split exists to this daySeek a mystical, personal connection with God.Use a range of practices, including breath control & meditation, in their rituals.Known for dancingShiaSufi
75Umayyad Dynasty 661 – 750 CEUmayyad mosque in Damascus, Syria
76Umayyad dynasty Made Arabic the official language Used uniform coinage Began the first great work of Islamic architecture – the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
77Successes Failures Umayyad Expansion To the East, Armies conquered lands from the borders of China & the Indus River Valley.To the West, forces took North Africa, crossed the Mediterranean, & took control of most of Spain.Couldn’t take Constantinople in 717Wasn’t able to push beyond Spain into France – defeated at the Battle of Tours in 732SuccessesFailures
78Ruling its EmpireAs the caliphate grew, Umayyads strengthened its central gov’t.Growing dissatisfaction with Arab Muslims becoming the ruling class.Had power & privilege unavailable to those conqueredConflicted with the Muslim ideal of equalityConcern over emphasis on political ambition
79End of the Umayyads Widespread displeasure Continued Shia opposition Claims of (unfair) favoritism among the Umayyads toward certain familiesTime was ripe for rebellionAbbasid family unite many opponentsIn a series of battles in the late 740s in Iran & Iraq, they wiped out almost all of the Umayyad family.Caliphate entered a new phase: the Abbasid Dynasty
80The Abbasid DynastyRelocated the capital of the caliphate to Baghdad (now Iraq)Heavy Persian Influence: Adopted a Persian style of gov’t in which they cut themselves off from the peopleExample: in the throne room – the caliph was hidden behind a screen – couldn’t be seen
81A Changing CultureTurned Islam into a truly universal religion that attracted people of many culturesTrade flourished – exchange of goods & ideas – carried Islam to West Africa & SE AsiaLively trade was a source of great wealth – funding grand cultural achievements
82Abbasid Dynasty: A Golden Age Caliph Huran al-RashidRuled from 786 – 809Most prominent Abbasid caliphBrought Muslim culture to great heightsSupported scholarshipLasting achievements in arts & sciences
83Abbasid Dynasty: The End of Unity Problems:Challenges from Europe – Christian ArmiesProblems from Egypt – Fatimids (claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter) – controlled the Mediterranean & Red Seas, disrupted Abbasid trade – grew richer & more powerful than the AbbasidsSeljuk Turks – grew in power to the point of creating their own empireMamluks (from Syria & Egypt) & Mongols (China / Central Asia) – attack By the 900s, growing # of small states broke awayCaliph increasingly became a powerless figurehead
87Reviewing Key PeopleWho was Abu Bakr?First successor to Muhammad
88RecallWhat was the name of the first dynasty to gain control of the caliphate?Umayyad
89Describe What features marked the Abbasid style of rule? Persian style of GovernmentLittle contact with the people
90Evaluate Flourishing of Muslim, culture, art, and science “Golden Age” For what do you think the Abbasids should be remembered?“Golden Age”Flourishing of Muslim, culture, art, and science
91Recall Who were the Fatamids, Seljuk Turks, and Mamluks? Groups that challenged the caliph’s power
92EvaluateEvaluate this statement: Even though the caliphate ended, its influence lasted for thousands of years.True!Today Islam is a major world religion.Conflicts that began during the caliphate continue.Still Sunni vs Shia
93Islam: Society & Culture For the first Muslims, Islam was more than a religion. It was a guide to political, social, and cultural life.The early Muslims responded with spectacular achievement in many fields!
94Man of Many Talents: Ibn Sina The Persian scholar Ibn Sina, aka Avicenna, first mastered philosophy and religion.Then he gained fame as a physician & trained other doctors who came to him for guidance.While teaching & treating the sick, he began to study law.Was there anything Ibn Sina couldn’t do?Wait, have you ever heard of Ibn Sina?!
9516 years old!After all these efforts, surely sina had reached an old age. How old was he?
96At age 17…Ibn Sina cured a powerful local leader of a disease that had frustrated other doctors.For his reward, the famous doctor asked only to use his patient’s library.Ibn Sina contributed to medical libraries of the future by compiling a massive encylopedia of known medical knowledge.
97Does he remind you of any one? But that’s not all…In addition to medicine, he contributed to mathematics, astronomy, music, poetry, and other fields.His lifelong achievements exemplify the tremendous accomplishments of Muslim scholars & artists.Their work left an enduring legacy!Does he remind you of any one?
98The Family & Women Patriarchal Man – head of the family Men – could have several wives BUT had to treat them equally
99According to the Koran Women are equal to men before Allah Women can inherit property & seek divorce in certain circumstances
100Slavery Common throughout Muslim lands Most came from non-Muslim regionsSome, who had been purchased by wealthy, privileged members of society, became well educated.Like the Bible, the Quran did NOT condemn it but required that slaves be treated fairly
101More about slavery… Slaves had the right to buy their freedom. Was a part of society & economyMuslim merchants traded slaves over a wide area
102Economy Built largely on commerce Think geography! –Ancient Trade routes crossed the Arabian PeninsulaMuslim merchants followed routes that extended NW to Spain and SE to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.Some merchants were “middlemen” – connecting suppliers in the East to markets in the West.
103More on tradeSome produced & traded agricultural products &goods such as finely crafted iron goods.Expanded the use of coinage – easing long-distance commerceUsed standardized weights and measuresExtended credit to buyers over long distancesMore on what was tradedImprovements in trade
104Value/ Impact of Trade: provided wealth led to splendid cities like Baghdad helped spread the faith to distant lands!
106Islamic believers were commanded to examine their world & seek evidence of Allah in its wonders. This atttitude promotes curiosity & inquiry.Why?
107Valuable contributions of Muslim scholars: translations into Arabic of ancient Greek works Abbasids – had an academy in Baghdad called “The House of Wisdom” for this purpose
108AstronomySome stars such as Aldebaran, still bear the names given them by their Muslim discoverersBuilt observatoriesPerfected the astrolabe –Sailors used it for latitude & longitudeCould also be used for direction – find direction toward Mecca for prayer
109Mathematics Adopted 0 – 9 from India Algebra Trigonometry By the time this system got to Europe, they were called Arabic numeralsAlgebraTrigonometry
110Meet al-KWARIZMI c. 780 – c.850 Father of Algebra Created to solve a practical problem!Islamic law required inheritances be divided according to proportions.Figuring out how much each heir should receive was made easier with algebra.Recommended algebra for settling lawsuits, business deals, measuring land, and digging canals.
111Thank the Muslim scholar: Muhmamad ibn Musa al-Kwarizmi Are you taking Algebra?
112MedicineDoctors in Baghdad had to pass rigorous tests before they could practice! (should sound familiar!!!!)Baghdad – home to the world’s first school of pharmacyPerformed eye surgery!!!! – used a hollow needled instrument to draw out a film that caused blindness (cataracts?!?)
113Medicine: Ibn Sina Persian doctor Aka Avicenna Probably the most famous medical scholar of his timeContributed to medicine, psychology, logic, and music!
114Islamic Art Featured wide range of materials wood metal ceramics textilesShared religious style:Generally does NOT contain ANY human or animal figuresMuslims believe that such portrayals can tempt people to worship those images.Geometric patterns and floral designs prevail
115Islamic Art Architecture: domes and minarets Calligraphy: “spiritual geometry produced with material tools”Architecture: domes and minarets
117Describe….How did the role of women change during the Abbasid caliphate?They lost status/ freedomWere confined to harems.Had to cover hairSometimes wore veils
118Evaluate: True or False? “The Koran and other Muslim scriptures deal strictly with religious topics.”False!Defines family roles, sets rules for behavior, treatment of slaves, trade relations
119What were some Muslim contributions to astronomy? Discovered starsCreated an accurate calendar based on observations of “heavenly bodies”Perfected the astrolabe
120Explain. What was Muslim contributions to math? Adopted the spread of units 0 -9 – borrowed from India and spread it so that they are now referred to as Arabic numeralsAlgebraTrigonometry
121ExplainWhat was the connection between Muslim scholars and those of ancient Greece?Many ancient Greek works were translated into Arabic and studied, which stimulated further study.Baghdad’s House of Widsom
122One more question… last but not least What are some unique characteristics of Islamic art?No animals and No peopleGeometric patterns and floral designsDomesMinaretsCalligraphyPoetryLiterature – 1001 Nights or the Arabian Nights
123This concludes the lecture on Islam: 600 – 1450.