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CHAPTER 3 Sect. 1 Learning Target 7.2.1 We will describe the geography and climate of the Arabian Peninsula, and discuss the impact of surrounding bodies.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Sect. 1 Learning Target 7.2.1 We will describe the geography and climate of the Arabian Peninsula, and discuss the impact of surrounding bodies."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3 Sect. 1 Learning Target We will describe the geography and climate of the Arabian Peninsula, and discuss the impact of surrounding bodies of water and of nomadic and settled lifestyles.

2 7.2.1 Geography and Life in Arabia The Big Idea Life in Arabia was influenced by the harsh desert climate of the region. Main Ideas Arabia is mostly a desert land. Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary—developed in the desert.

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4 Main Idea 1: Arabia is mostly a desert land. The Arabian Peninsula lies near the intersection of three continents, so it is called a “crossroads” location. –Africa –Asia –Europe Arabia’s location has shaped its physical features.

5 Physical Features Arabia lies in a region with hot, dry air. The climate makes it hard for plants and animals to survive. Huge sand dunes, or hills of sand shaped by the wind, cover large parts of Arabia. Water exists mainly in oases, wet, fertile areas that are scattered across the deserts.

6 Main Idea 2: Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary— developed in the desert. In a nomadic life, people moved from place to place within tribes for protection and as the seasons changed. Sedentary people settled in oases, where they could farm. These settlements often became towns. Towns became centers of trade. Many had a souk, a market or bazaar, where goods were traded.

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8 Test Questions Please note, there will be 10 questions from Section one on the chapter test. Standard Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.

9 CHAPTER 3 Sect. 2 Learning Target We will examine the life and teachings of Muhammad, the origins of Islam, and Islam’s connection with Judaism and Christianity.

10 7.2.2 Origins of Islam The Big Idea Muhammad, a merchant from Mecca, introduced a major world religion called Islam. Main Ideas Muhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia. Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and Christianity, but they also presented new ideas. Islam spread in Arabia after being rejected at first.

11 Main Idea 1: Muhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia. A man named Muhammad taught a new religion to the people of Arabia. Muslims believe that God spoke to Muhammad through an angel and made him a prophet. While Muhammad was in a cave meditating, the angel visited him, according to Islamic belief. The messages he received were the basis for Islam and were collected in the holy book of Islam called the Qur’an.

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14 Main Idea 2: Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and Christianity, but they also presented new ideas. Muhammad taught that there was only one God, Allah, which means “the God” in Arabic. This is similar to Christianity and Judaism. Muslims also recognize many of the same prophets as Christians and Jews. Muslims don’t believe that Jesus was the son of God. Arabs were used to worshipping many gods, so many of them rejected Muhammad’s teachings. Muhammad said the rich and poor should be equal. Many wealthy merchants did not like this idea.

15 Main Idea 3: Islam spread in Arabia after being rejected at first. Islam spread from Mecca to Medina. –Rulers of Mecca began to threaten Muhammad and his followers with violence as Islam started to influence more people. –Muhammad left Mecca and went to Medina. –This departure became known in Muslim history as the hegira, or journey. –Islam thrived in Medina, and other Arab tribes in the region accepted Islam.

16 Islam Spreads from Medina to the Rest of Arabia Muhammad’s house became the first mosque, or building for Muslim prayer. He reported new revelations about rules for society, government, and worship. Mecca finally welcomed Muhammad back to the city and accepted Islam as its religion.

17 Test Questions There will be 15 test questions on Section 2 of the text. Standard: Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.

18 CHAPTER 3 Sect. 3 Learning Target We will explain the importance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Identify their influence on the daily lives of Muslims and on Islamic beliefs, practices, and laws.

19 7.2.3 Islamic Beliefs and Practices The Big Idea Sacred texts called the Qur’an and the Sunnah guide Muslims in their religion, daily life, and laws. Main Ideas The Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives. The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of them. Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

20 Main Idea 1: The Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives. The world has a definite end, and on that final day, God will judge all people. The central teaching of the Qur’an is that there is only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. (1a) Q1 The Qur’an sets out guidelines for moral behavior, acts of worship, and rules for social life(1b) Q1 –Muslims were encouraged to free slaves. –Women could own property, earn money, and receive an education. –No eating pork or drinking alcohol. –One must wash before prayer in order to be pure. –Jihad, Struggle

21 Qur’an The Qur’an discusses Jihad, which means to make an effort, or to struggle. Jihad refers to the inner struggle people go through in their effort to obey God and behave according to Islamic ways. –Jihad can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community, or historically, to convert people to Islam. The word has also been translated as “holy war,” because of the struggles with outside forces. The Qur’an is the Islamic Holy Book of Muslim people.

22 Main Idea 2: The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of them. The hadith (huh-deeth)is the written record of Muhammad’s words and actions. It is the basis for the Sunnah. The Sunnah provides a model for the duties and way of life expected of Muslims. The first duties of a Muslim are known as the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five acts of worship required of all Muslims. (2a) Q1 Ramadan is the 4 th duty in the 5 Pillars of Islam. It is a reminder that God is more important than ones body and that there are people in the world who struggle each day to get food. (2b)Q3. People shouldn’t owe others money and should obey their leaders.

23 The Five Pillars of Islam 1.Saying “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his prophet” A statement of faith. 2.Praying five times a day Prayer 3.Giving to the poor and needy Charity 4.Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan Fasting 5.Traveling to Mecca at least once on a hajj A pilgrimage to Mecca

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26 Main Idea 3: Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The Qur’an and the Sunnah form the basis of Islamic law, or Shariah. Shariah is very important to Muslims because it governs all aspects of their lives. Shariah is a system based on Islamic sources and human reason that judges the rightness of actions taken.

27 Test Questions There will be 12 test questions on Section three of the text. Standard Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life.

28 Test There will be a map portion of the test. It will consist of identifying the following places: Mecca Medina Asia Europe Arabia Africa

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