1CHAPTER 3 Sect. 1 Learning Target 7.2.1 We will describe the geography and climate of the Arabian Peninsula, and discuss the impact of surrounding bodies of water and of nomadic and settled lifestyles.
2Geography and Life in Arabia 7.2.1The Big IdeaLife in Arabia was influenced by the harsh desert climate of the region.Main IdeasArabia is mostly a desert land.Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary—developed in the desert.
4Main Idea 1: Arabia is mostly a desert land. The Arabian Peninsula lies near the intersection of three continents, so it is called a “crossroads” location.AfricaAsiaEuropeArabia’s location has shaped its physical features.
5Physical Features Arabia lies in a region with hot, dry air. The climate makes it hard for plants and animals to survive.Huge sand dunes, or hills of sand shaped by the wind, cover large parts of Arabia.Water exists mainly in oases, wet, fertile areas that are scattered across the deserts.
6Main Idea 2: Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary—developed in the desert. In a nomadic life, people moved from place to place within tribes for protection and as the seasons changed.Sedentary people settled in oases, where they could farm. These settlements often became towns.Towns became centers of trade. Many had a souk, a market or bazaar, where goods were traded.
8Please note, there will be 10 questions from Section one on Test QuestionsPlease note, there will be 10 questions from Section one onthe chapter test.Standard 7.2.1Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.
9CHAPTER 3 Sect. 2 Learning Target 7.2.2 We will examine the life and teachings of Muhammad, the origins of Islam, and Islam’s connection with Judaism and Christianity.
10Origins of Islam The Big Idea 7.2.2The Big IdeaMuhammad, a merchant from Mecca, introduced a major world religion called Islam.Main IdeasMuhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia.Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and Christianity, but they also presented new ideas.Islam spread in Arabia after being rejected at first.
11Main Idea 1: Muhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia. A man named Muhammad taught a new religion to the people of Arabia.Muslims believe that God spoke to Muhammad through an angel and made him a prophet.While Muhammad was in a cave meditating, the angel visited him, according to Islamic belief.The messages he received were the basis for Islam and were collected in the holy book of Islam called the Qur’an.
14Main Idea 2: Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and Christianity, but they also presented new ideas.Muhammad taught that there was only one God, Allah, which means “the God” in Arabic. This is similar to Christianity and Judaism.Muslims also recognize many of the same prophets as Christians and Jews.Muslims don’t believe that Jesus was the son of God.Arabs were used to worshipping many gods, so many of them rejected Muhammad’s teachings.Muhammad said the rich and poor should be equal. Many wealthy merchants did not like this idea.
15Main Idea 3: Islam spread in Arabia after being rejected at first. Islam spread from Mecca to Medina.Rulers of Mecca began to threaten Muhammad and his followers with violence as Islam started to influence more people.Muhammad left Mecca and went to Medina.This departure became known in Muslim history as the hegira, or journey.Islam thrived in Medina, and other Arab tribes in the region accepted Islam.
16Islam Spreads from Medina to the Rest of Arabia Muhammad’s house became the first mosque, or building for Muslim prayer.He reported new revelations about rules for society, government, and worship.Mecca finally welcomed Muhammad back to the city and accepted Islam as its religion.
17Test QuestionsThere will be 15 test questions on Section 2 of the text. Standard: Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.
18CHAPTER 3 Sect. 3 Learning Target 7.2.3 We will explain the importance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Identify their influence on the daily lives of Muslims and on Islamic beliefs, practices, and laws.
19Islamic Beliefs and Practices 7.2.3The Big IdeaSacred texts called the Qur’an and the Sunnah guide Muslims in their religion, daily life, and laws.Main IdeasThe Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives.The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of them.Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
20Main Idea 1: The Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives. The world has a definite end, and on that final day, God will judge all people. The central teaching of the Qur’an is that there is only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. (1a) Q1The Qur’an sets out guidelines for moral behavior, acts of worship, and rules for social life(1b) Q1Muslims were encouraged to free slaves.Women could own property, earn money, and receive an education.No eating pork or drinking alcohol.One must wash before prayer in order to be pure.Jihad, Struggle
21Qur’anThe Qur’an discusses Jihad, which means to make an effort, or to struggle. Jihad refers to the inner struggle people go through in their effort to obey God and behave according to Islamic ways.Jihad can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community, or historically, to convert people to Islam. The word has also been translated as “holy war,” because of the struggles with outside forces.The Qur’an is the Islamic Holy Book of Muslim people.
22Main Idea 2: The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of them. The hadith (huh-deeth)is the written record of Muhammad’s words and actions. It is the basis for the Sunnah.The Sunnah provides a model for the duties and way of life expected of Muslims.The first duties of a Muslim are known as the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five acts of worship required of all Muslims. (2a) Q1Ramadan is the 4th duty in the 5 Pillars of Islam. It is a reminder that God is more important than ones body and that there are people in the world who struggle each day to get food. (2b)Q3.People shouldn’t owe others money and should obey their leaders.
23The Five Pillars of Islam Saying “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his prophet” A statement of faith.Praying five times a day PrayerGiving to the poor and needy CharityFasting during the holy month of Ramadan FastingTraveling to Mecca at least once on a hajj A pilgrimage to Mecca
26Main Idea 3: Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The Qur’an and the Sunnah form the basis of Islamic law, or Shariah.Shariah is very important to Muslims because it governs all aspects of their lives.Shariah is a system based on Islamic sources and human reason that judges the rightness of actions taken.
27There will be 12 test questions on Section three of the text. Standard 7.2.3Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life.
28TestThere will be a map portion of the test. It will consist of identifying the following places:MeccaMedinaAsiaEuropeArabiaAfrica