2Geography of Ancient Egypt “Gift of the Nile” A. The Longest River – The Nile- The Nile begins near the equator in Africa and flows north to the Mediterranean.- In the south the Nile churns with cataracts, or waterfalls.- The Nile River branches into a delta: an area near a river’s mouth where the water deposits fine soil.- The Upper Nile is in the south and the Lower Nile is in the north.- The Nile Floods1. Farmers could predict when to plant crops.
3The red land was barren desert beyond the fertile region. B. Red Land, Black LandThe region along the Nile where people lived is called the black land because of the fertile soil the floods deposited.The red land was barren desert beyond the fertile region.Black LandRed Land
4C. Isolation Egypt was protected from enemies because of: 1. It has harsh desert climate.2. The Mediterranean Coast lacked good harbors.
5Land of Plenty The Ibis bird flew from the south just before floods. Agricultural Techniques- Egyptians dug canals that carried water to dry lands.- They used a tool, called the shaduf, to spread water across the fields which gave them more farmland.Egyptian Crops- First to grind wheat into flour.- Grew vegetables, such as, lettuce, radishes, asparagus, and cucumbers.Ibisshaduf
6Land of Plenty (Continued) Grew fruits, such as dates, figs, grapes, and watermelon.First to weave fibers from flax into a fabric called linen.a. men wore - linen wraps.b. women wore - loose sleeveless dresses.c. They also wove marsh grasses into sandals.
7Land of Plenty (Continued) D. Egyptian Houses- Egyptians built houses using bricks made of mud mixed with chopped straw.- Most Egyptians slept on woven reed mats.- Wealthy citizens enjoyed bed frames and cushions.- Nobles had fancier homes with tree lined courtyards for shade, where poor Egyptians went to a roof to cool off.
8Geography Shapes Egyptian Life MiningEgyptians wanted iron and gold.Nub was the Egyptian word for gold.Nubia got it’s name because it had the richest gold mines in Africa.Mining materials was difficult.- Egyptians also mined precious stones.
9B. Fishing and Hunting- Used everything from nets to harpoons to catch fish.- Some of the more adventurous hunters hunted hippos and crocodiles.- They also hunted quail, ducks, and geese.
10- Surpluses led to trade with each other. C. Transportation and Trade- The Nile became a highway.- Because of the current, the Egyptians used paddles to go faster when traveling north. Going South they used sails.- Surpluses led to trade with each other.- Their method of trade was called bartering.
11Life in Ancient Egypt: Work and Family Life TradeSpecialized JobsFood surpluses allowed society’s economy to expand.Specialized jobs were created for the complex Egyptian society:FarmersScribesArtisansEgyptians used the Nile to trade with other Africans.Egyptian products traded:ScrollsLinenGoldJewelryBrought back:Exotic woodsAnimal skinsLive beasts
12As Egypt grew it was divided into 42 provinces. Egypt created an army to defend itself.One of the highest jobs in Egypt was a priest.Together priests and rulers held ceremonies to please the gods.Egyptians believed if the gods were angry the Nile would not flood!Rulers and Priests
13At the bottom of society. How to become a slave: Owed a debt SlavesLife for WomenAt the bottom of society.How to become a slave:Owed a debtCommitted a crimeCaptured in warMost treated well unless they worked the mines.Many died from the exhausted labor.Egyptian society men and women had equal rights.Could both own and manage their own property.Main job for women was to care for children and their home.Other jobs:Wove clothWorked fields and workshops with husbands
14Other children learned their parents’ jobs. ChildhoodBoys and girls from wealthy families went to schools run by scribes or priests.Other children learned their parents’ jobs.Almost all married in their early teens!Toys:DollsAnimal figuresBoard gamesMarblesParents made toys from wood or clay.Played physical games with balls made of leather or reeds.
15Expanding Knowledge Astronomy Geometry Priests studied sky as part of their religionDeveloped world’s first practical calendarUsed knotted ropes to measure land boundaries after the Nile flooded.Squares and triangles were sacred.Used to design royal temples and monuments.
16MedicineDoctors prepared dead bodies for burial.Performed some of the world’s first surgeries.Doctors believed the heart controlled thought and the brain circulated blood.Some doctors specialized in medicines using herbs.
17HieroglyphsEgyptian writing system developed about 3000 B.C.Started with 700 characters and ended with more than 6,000!Developed a paper called papyrus.Was light and easy to carryUsed to create first books
18Beliefs and Religion Life After Death Believed the gods favored them. Believed in a happy afterlife.
19Believed in polytheism. Worshiped nature gods:Re (Amon-Re): sun godOsiris: god who judged Egyptians after deathIsis: fertility goddess; Osiris’s wifeAnubis: god of the deadMany Gods
20Making MummiesThought they would need their body in the afterlife.Took about 70 days.Very expensive.
21How to embalm a dead person: Remove all organs except their heart Fill the body with a mixture of salt and herbsWhen dried, wrap in hundreds of yards of linen strips.Placed in a sarcophagus (coffin) in a tombTomb held everyday objects, furniture, and foodWalls painted with pictures; believed pictures would become real.Mummy maker
22The Pyramid Builders The Old Kingdom The First Dynasty - Legend says a king, Narmer, united Upper and Lower Egypt.- Some historians believe that several kings joined the two lands.- The Ruler of Egypt wore the Double Crown.- First Dynasty: began around 2925 B.C.The Pyramid Builders
23Old Kingdom Continued… When a king died he was usually replaced by one of his children- Succession: members of royal family inherit the throne.- Historians divided the dynasties into: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom
24Pharaohs RuleThe king of Egypt became known as a pharaoh, which means “great house”.It was originally used to describe the king’s palace.Egyptians believed pharaohs was a god, blamed him for hard times.In this case, a rival might drive him from power.
25Pharaoh’s Rule Continued… Since pharaoh seen as God, religion and government was not separate- Priests had much power in government. Many high officials were priests.
26Khufu’s Great Pyramid Early Pyramids First rulers were buried in underground tombs, topped with bricksLater replaced bricks with small pyramid- pyramid: structure shaped like a triangle, four sides meet at a point.
27Khufu’s Great Pyramid Continued… King Djoser built larger pyramid over his tomb around 2630 B.C.Step pyramid: sides rise in a series of giant stepsIt is the oldest-known large stone structure in the world.
2880 years later, pharaoh Khufu wanted to show the world his greatness He ordered to build the largest pyramid ever.Each side was 760 feet long, 2.3 million blocks were used.Farmers worked during Nile’s flood season, others worked all yearThe Great Pyramid took 20 years to build.- An estimated 20,000 Egyptians worked on it.The Great Pyramid
29Grave RobbersEgyptians later stopped building pyramids, in part due to robberyGrave robbers broke into tombs to steal treasure and mummies.Egyptians believed robbery kept the buried from having a happy afterlife.
30Grave Robbers Continued… In the New Kingdom, pharaohs began building secret tombs.Burial chambers were hidden in mountains near the Nile.Pharaohs hoped to protect their bodies and treasures from robbers.
31Inside the TombsPyramids had several passageways leading to different rooms.They wanted to confuse the robbersTombs were palaces in the afterlife.
32Mourners filled the tomb with many objects. Some were food, furnitureSome tombs contained small statues that were servants for the dead pharaoh.
34InvasionsBy 2130 B.C., kings began to lose power to local province rulers.For about 500 more years, the kings held Egypt together.However, with a much weaker central government.Nomadic Hyksos invaded from northeast with chariots, better weapons.- After 100 years, the Egyptians drove out the Hyksos and began the New Kingdom.Middle Kingdom
35The New KingdomThe New Kingdom included some of Egypt’s most powerful rulers.Set up new capital city of Thebes (450 miles south of Memphis)Strengthened and expanded Egypt’sEmpire
36A Woman Pharaoh Taking Power Queen Hatshepsut was the first woman pharaoh.Ruled with her stepson, Thutmose III.1472 B.C. ruled herself the only ruler and wore a fake beard.Trade GrowsMade Egypt richer through trade.Largest expedition crossed Eastern Desert to the Red Sea.
37MonumentsMost famous monument was called the obelisk.Four-sided shaft with a pyramid-shaped top.Artisans carved her great deeds into the red granite blocks.Mysterious EndHatshepsut disappeared after 15 years of rule.Thutmose III became pharaoh after her death.He tried to destroy all records of her reign.
38A Reforming Pharaoh A New Belief Akhenaton became pharaoh in 1353 B.C. Lifted Aton (sun god) to the highest status.Closed temples of other gods.Those gods’ priests lost power.Promoted the worship of one god for the first time in history.Realistic ArtNew way of thinking affected art.First time to show realistic pictures and carvings. i.e. it shows Akhenaton’s large stomach.
39Reform EndsThree years after Akhenaton's death Tutankhamen became pharaoh in 1333 B.C.Advisers convinced him to end Akhenaton's new religion and worship the old gods.
40A Powerful Pharaoh Empire Builder In 1279 B.C. Ramses II began his 66-year reign.Empire BuilderRamses wanted to expand rule through war.Extended rule to Nubia and to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.Bordered the empire of the Hittites.
41Military LeaderRamses led the Egyptians into battle against the Hittites.Ramses claimed a victory.Created the first known peace treaty in the world with the Hittites.
42Built himself the House of Ramses Ramses’ ReignBuilt himself the House of RamsesFour 66ft. statues of himself to guard his temple.Wanted to appear god-likeReigned until 1213 B.C. when he was over the age of 90Made Egyptian government stable.No enemy threatened Egypt.Nile flooding was more reliable during this time.Crops were more plentiful than ever.
43Egypt’s Decline Egypt’s central government weakened after Ramses II. After about 1070 B.C. foreign leaders ruled Egypt.i.e. Alexander the Great (king of Macedonia)Macedonia rulers continued to hold power in Egypt after Alexander’s death.Cleopatra was the last Macedonian ruler before the Roman Empire took over.