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FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS.   Definition of a word-group and its basic features   Structure of word-groups   Meaning of word-groups   Motivation in.

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Presentation on theme: "FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS.   Definition of a word-group and its basic features   Structure of word-groups   Meaning of word-groups   Motivation in."— Presentation transcript:

1 FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS

2   Definition of a word-group and its basic features   Structure of word-groups   Meaning of word-groups   Motivation in word-groups

3 Word-Group   the largest two-facet language unit   consists of more than one word   studied in the syntagmatic level of analysis

4 Word-Group   the degree of structural and semantic cohesion may vary e.g. at least, by means of, take place – semantically and structurally inseparable e.g. a week ago, kind to people – have greater semantic and structural independence

5 Free-Word Combination   word-groups that have a greater semantic and structural independence   freely composed by the speaker in his speech according to his purpose

6 Features of Word-groups   Lexical Valency   Grammatical Valency

7 Lexical Valency (Collocability)   The ability of a word to appear in various combinations with other words, or lexical contexts e.g. question – vital/pressing/urgent/etc., question at issue, to raise a question, a question on the agenda

8 Lexical Valency (Collocability)   words habitually collocated in speech make a cliché e.g. to put forward a question

9 Lexical Valency (Collocability)   lexical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. flowerцветок garden flowersсадовые цветы hot-house flowersоранжерейные цветы pot flowersкомнатные цветы

10 Lexical Valency (Collocability)   different meanings of one and the same word may be revealed through different type of lexical valency e.g. heavy table, book heavy snow, rain heavy drinker, eater heavy sorrow, sleep heavy industry

11 Grammatical Valency   The ability of a word to appear in specific grammatical structures, or grammatical contexts

12 Grammatical Valency   the minimal grammatical context in which the words are used when brought together to form a word-group is called the pattern of the word-group

13 Grammatical Valency   restricted by the part of speech e.g. e.g. an adjective + noun, infinitive, prepositional group a kind man, kind to people, heavy to lift   limited by the inner structure of the language e.g. to propose a plan – to suggest a plan to propose to do smth -

14 Grammatical Valency   grammatical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. enter the room - войти в комнату

15 Classifications of word- groups   according to the distribution   according to the head-word   according to the syntactic pattern

16 Word-groups according to distribution  –  endocentric – central member functionally equivalent to the whole word-group e.g. red flower ( I saw a red flower – I saw a flower)  –  exocentric – the distribution of the whole word-group is different from either of its components e.g. side by side, grow smaller, John runs

17 Word-groups according to the head word   nominal groups e.g. red flower   adjectival groups e.g. kind to people   verbal groups e.g. to speak well

18 Word-groups according to the syntactic pattern   predicative – have a syntactic structure similar to that of a sentence e.g. John went, he works   non- predicative – do not have a structure similar to a sentence e.g. red flower, running John

19 Non-predicative and endocentric word-groups  –  coordinative – elements of a word-group are coordinated with each other e.g. e.g. day and night, do or die  –  subordinative – one member of a word-group is subordinated to the central element e.g. e.g. red flower, a man of wisdom

20 Meaning of Word-Groups   lexical meaning   structural meaning

21 Lexical meaning   the combined lexical meaning of the component words   BUT the meaning of the word-group predominates over the lexical meanings of its components e.g. atomic weight, atomic warfare

22 Lexical meaning  polysemantic words are used only in one of their meanings e.g. man and wife, blind man   stylistic reference of a word-group may be different from that of its components e.g. old, boy, bags, fun – old boy (дружище), bags of fun

23 Structural meaning   meaning conveyed by the arrangement of components of a word-group e.g. school grammar – grammar school

24 Structural meaning   structural and lexical meanings are interdependent and inseparable e.g. school children – to school children all the sun long – all the night long, all the week long

25 Motivation in Word-groups  -  lexically motivated - the combined lexical meaning of a group is deducible from the meanings of its components  –  lexically non- motivated – the meaning of the whole is not seen through the meanings of the elements

26 Motivation in Word-groups   lexically motivated e.g. red flower   lexically non- motivated e.g. red tape – ‘official bureaucratic methods’

27 Motivation in Word-groups  e.g. – ‘a sauce made of apples’  e.g. apple sauce – ‘a sauce made of apples’ – ‘nonsense’ apple sauce – ‘nonsense’

28 Motivation in Word-groups  Non-motivated word- groups are called or  Non-motivated word- groups are called phraseological units or idioms


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