2 Grammatical or Ungrammatical: 1. The boy found the ball2. The boy found quickly3. The boy found in the house4. The boy found the ball in the house5. Disa slept the baby6. Disa slept soundlyFind: Transitive verb (with object)Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)
3 Grammar English has strict rules for combining words into phrases. Languages have different ways of forming grammatical phrases and sentences.
4 Types of grammarMental grammar- a form of internal linguistic knowledge- subconsciousLinguistic etiquette- proper or best structure to be used in a languageTraditional grammar- originally from Latin and Greek
5 Syntactic Categories (parts of speech) (1) Lexical categoriesNoun (N)Verb (V)Adjective (A)Preposition (P)Adverb (Adv)Examplesmoisture, policymelt, remaingood, intelligentto, nearslowly, now
6 Syntactic Categories (2) Non-lexical categoriesArticlesDegree word (Deg)Qualifier (Qual)Auxiliary (Aux)Conjunction (Con)ExamplesA, an, thevery, morealways, perhapswill, canand, or
7 Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences. a. The glass suddenly broke.b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane.c. The peaches never appear quite ripe.d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra.Det / N / Adv / VDet / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / NDet / N / Qual / V / Deg / AN / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N
8 Phrases NP : Noun Phrase The car, a clever student VP : Verb Phrase study hard, play the guitarPP : Prepositional Phrasein the class, above the earthAP : Adjective Phrasevery tall, quite certain
9 Other categories E.g. Tom likes his dog Number- singular or pluralPerson- first, second or third personTense- present, past, or futureVoice- active, passiveGender- natural (English) & grammatical (Arabic)The role of these categories becomes clearer in describing language structure when we consider them in terms of AgreementE.g. Tom likes his dog
10 Grammatical Gender Natural gender is based on sex (male or female) Grammatical gender is on the type of noun (masculine or feminine)Arabic, French and GermanSpanish el son (the sun) and la luna (the moon)Le livre (the book) is grammatically masculine but not biologically.
11 Approaches Prescriptive approach Examples Sets out rules for the correct or ‘proper’ use of English.ExamplesYou must not end a sentence with a preposition - Who did you with?You must not split an infinitive - to never ever goLatin’s influence
12 Approaches The descriptive approach Two types of analysis: Describes the regular structure of the language as it is used not how it should be used.Characterizes the structure of different languages.Two types of analysis:Structural analysisImmediate constituent analysis
13 Structural AnalysisInvestigates the distribution of forms in a languageTest-framesThe _________ makes a lot of noiseI heard a __________ yesterdayA lot of nouns can fit here e.g. dog, donkey, monkey, child, boy, girl, man, radio, etc. but NOT Sara, the dog, a car.
14 Structural Analysis The child ___________ slept, saw a clown, a bird, smart, found the cake, found the cake in the cupboard, is smart, realized that the earth is roundOnly VPs fit here.
15 Immediate constituent analysis How small constituents (or components) in a sentence go together to form larger constituents.Her father brought a shotgun to the weddingNPs – VPs – PPsHierarchical organization
16 Immediate constituent analysis More examples:The child found a puppy in the gardenSam kicked the ball.