Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the theory of grammar"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to the theory of grammar Grammar as part of language and a linguistic disciplineParts of grammar.Paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of grammatical units.Language and speech
2Language is expressed and acquired through media in ancient India (5th century B.C.) (Panini)and among Ancient Greeks (Aristotle ( B.C.)).the Greeks founded the European tradition.the Romans conquered Greece (2nd century BC) and Roman scholars began to analyze Latin in the same tradition1 SPEECH2 WRITING
3Language structure Phonology, Lexicology Grammar Morphology SyntaxPhonemes (meaningless)Words (meaningful)- the smallest naming unitsSentences ( the smallest units of communication)
4Traditional definition Morphology Syntax Morphology is the part of grammar which deals with forms of words.girl-I-saw-yesterday’s “has been found”’ll never rememberSyntax is the part of grammar which studies phrases and sentencesI’ll never forget the girl-I-saw-yesterday’s smile.- Yes.
5Types of relations between grammatical units Paradigmaticexist between elements of the language system outside the strings in which they co-occur. Each language unit is included in a set of connections based on different formal and functional properties.Syntagmaticimmediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence (string).syntactic syntagma is the combination of at least 2 words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other.
6She writes poems. She has written a poem. She is writing a poem. Syntagmatic relationsParadigmatic relationsI forgot her name.forget, forgot, forgetting, forgets, forgottenwrite, writes, writing, wrote, written; sing, sings, singing, sang, sungShe writes poems.She has written a poem.She is writing a poem.
7The girl-I-saw-yesterday’s has been found – was found - found’ll never rememberN + VAdj + N
8Morphology studies the paradigmatic relations of words and sentences, Syntax studies the syntagmatic relations of words and sentences.Angles of research:1 a) paradigmatic morphology,b) syntagmatic morphologya) paradigmatic syntax,b) syntagmatic syntax
9Practical grammar, studies the organization of words into various combinations, presents a set of rules of combining words into utterances, of modifying the forms of the words for particular purposes and for interpreting the results.Theoretical grammar gives a scientific explanation to the nature and peculiarities of the grammatical system of the language
10The aims of the course are: to arm students with theoretical knowledge which will stimulate their active approach to the understanding of complex grammar phenomena;to enable students to clearly understand specific linguistic literature;to prepare them for carrying out their own research.As a result the student is meant to acquire the ability to form his own ideas on this or that question.
11Language and speech according to I. A Language and speech according to I.A. Beaudoin de Courtenay (the end of 19th c.) and Ferdinand de SaussureLanguage and speech are inseparable, they form an organic unityLanguage is the system (phonological, lexical and grammatical) that lies at the base of all speakingSpeech is the manifestation of language, or its use by various speakers and writers of the given languageLanguage in the narrow sense of the word is a system of means of expression, while speech is a manifestation of the system of language in the process of communication.
12He has written a letter. She,He, They, We … Write,has written, wrote , will write…A letter, a book, a man, water…Pronoun + Verb + Noun