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Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints Eighth Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints Eighth Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints Eighth Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e SEPARATION, DIVORCE, REMARRIAGE, AND STEPFAMILIES Chapter 15

3 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Learning Objectives LO 15.1 Describe the phases and outcomes of separation LO 15.2 Describe the divorce process and explain why divorce rates have declined LO 15.3 Explain the micro- and macro-level reasons for divorce

4 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Learning Objectives LO 15.4 Explain how and why divorce affects adults LO 15.5 Explain how and why divorce affects children LO 15.6 Describe the rate and process of remarriage, and explain how and why remarriages differ from first marriages

5 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Learning Objectives LO 15.7 Describe and explain the diversity and complexity of stepfamilies LO 15.8 Describe and explain how stepfamilies differ from nuclear families

6 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Separation: Process and Outcome The phases of separation Some outcomes of marital separation

7 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e The Phases of Separation PreseparationEarly separationMidseparationLate separation

8 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Some Outcomes of Marital Separation Separation and reconciliation –Getting back together after a divorce Separation without divorce –Separating but not making the divorce official Separation and divorce –Separation that ends in divorce

9 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 1 Which of the following is an outcome of marital separation? A.Separation and reconciliation B.Separation without divorce C.Separation and divorce D.All of the above

10 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 1 Which of the following is an outcome of marital separation? A.Separation and reconciliation B.Separation without divorce C.Separation and divorce D.All of the above

11 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 2 Early separation is the first phase of separation. A.True B.False

12 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 2 Early separation is the first phase of separation. A.True B.False

13 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Divorce: Process and Rates The process of divorce Divorce rates

14 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e The Process of Divorce Begins before people take any legal steps Emotional divorce Formal dissolution of a marriage Legal divorce Conflict over financial issues Economic divorce Agreements about responsibility of children Co-parental divorce Informing others about the divorce Community divorce Partners separate from each other emotionally and establish separate lives Psychic divorce

15 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Divorce Rates Divorce rates are lower today –Postponing marriage –Cohabiting –Higher education Same-sex divorce –Less in number –Young couples more likely to divorce

16 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Sources: Based on Plateris, 1973; U.S. Census Bureau, 2008, Table 77; and “National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends,” Figure Divorce in the United States,

17 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 3 In which of the following steps partners separate from each other emotionally and establish separate lives? A.Psychic divorce B.Community divorce C.Legal divorce D.Emotional divorce

18 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 3 In which of the following steps partners separate from each other emotionally and establish separate lives? A.Psychic divorce B.Community divorce C.Legal divorce D.Emotional divorce

19 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 4 Divorce rates are much higher today than they were 30 years ago. A.True B.False

20 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 4 Divorce rates are much higher today than they were 30 years ago. A.True B.False

21 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Why do People Divorce? Macro-level reasons for divorce Demographic variables and divorce Micro-level reasons for divorce

22 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Macro-Level Reasons for Divorce Divorce lawsEconomy Military service Cultural values and social integrationTechnology

23 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e NPR: Military Combats High Divorce Rate The audio illustrates the impact of war on marriages d=

24 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Demographic Variables and Divorce Parental divorce Age at marriage Premarital childbearingCohabitationGenderRace and ethnicitySocial classReligion

25 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure Divorce among Racial- Ethnic Groups First divorce rates per 1,000 women in first marriages age 18 and older, 2010 Source: Gibbs and Payne, 2011, Figure 2.

26 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Unrealistic expectationsPre-marital doubtsFinancial problems and disagreementsVerbal, physical, or emotional abuseExtramarital affairsCommunication problemsSubstance abuseDisagreements about how to raise and discipline children Micro-Level Reasons for Divorce

27 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 5 Which of the following is a macro-level reason for divorce? A.Substance Abuse B.Divorce Laws C.Race and Ethnicity D.Social Class

28 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 5 Which of the following is a macro-level reason for divorce? A.Substance Abuse B.Divorce Laws C.Race and Ethnicity D.Social Class

29 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 6 Social integration is the social bonds that people have with others and the community at large. A.True B.False

30 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 6 Social integration is the social bonds that people have with others and the community at large. A.True B.False

31 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Divorce Affects Adults Physical, emotional, and psychological effects Economic effects Child custody Child support

32 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e The Difficulty of Divorce The content explores statistics on the affects of divorce dest=http%3a%2f%2fold.socialexplorer.com%2fpe arson%2fspicemap.aspx%3fv%3d5429c2e c2%26m%3dplay

33 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Physical, Emotional, and Psychological Effects Divorce increases the chances of: –Health problems –Social isolation –Stress –Less social support –Depression

34 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Divorce and Adolescence The video exemplifies how divorce affects adolescents ED_MEDIA_1/sociology/videos/MFL/divorceadoles cence.html

35 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Economic Effects Economic setbacks include: –Decrease in wealth –Alimony –More financial strain on women

36 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Child Custody Court-mandated ruling regarding which divorced parent will have the primary responsibility for the children’s upbringing Types –Sole custody –Split custody –Joint custody

37 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e NPR: Fathers Become Vocal on Parents' Rights The audio clip talks about parental rights and custody d=

38 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Child Support Paid to the spouse who gets custody of children –Mostly women –Most women who receive it have visitation arrangements with the father

39 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Source: Grall, 2011, Figure 5. Figure Percent of Custodial Parents Who Received Full Child-Support Payments, 2009

40 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 7 _______ means that children divide their time between their parents, who share decisions about the children’s upbringing. A.Sole custody B.Split custody C.Joint custody D.None of the above

41 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 7 _______ means that children divide their time between their parents, who share decisions about the children’s upbringing. A.Sole custody B.Split custody C.Joint custody D.None of the above

42 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 8 Divorced men are twice as likely as recently divorced women to be in poverty. A.True B.False

43 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 8 Divorced men are twice as likely as recently divorced women to be in poverty. A.True B.False

44 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Divorce Affects Children What hurts children before, during, and after divorce? What helps children before, during, and after divorce? Some positive outcomes of divorce for children and adults

45 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e What Hurts Children Before, During, and After Divorce? Difficulties faced by children from divorced families –Lower academic achievement –Behavioral problems –Lower self-concept –Long-term health problems Effects of divorce can be short or long term

46 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e What Helps Children Before, During, and After Divorce? Reassuring the children Encouraging open communication Emphasizing that children are not responsible for the problems Maintaining an ongoing relationship with the children

47 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Some Positive Outcomes of Divorce for Children and Adults For children –Decreased stress –More time with nonresident parent Adults –End of a high-conflict marriage

48 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 9 _______ can lessen the negative effects of divorce in many ways. A.Teachers B.Siblings C.Peers D.Parents

49 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 9 _______ can lessen the negative effects of divorce in many ways. A.Teachers B.Siblings C.Peers D.Parents

50 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 10 Children who grow up in a divorced family are up to twice as likely to end their own marriages. A.True B.False

51 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 10 Children who grow up in a divorced family are up to twice as likely to end their own marriages. A.True B.False

52 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Remarriage: Rates, Process, and Characteristics How common is remarriage? Remarriage as a process Some characteristics of remarried couples Remarriage satisfaction Remarriage stability

53 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Common Is Remarriage? U.S. remarriage rate is the highest in the world –Median time between a divorce and a second marriage is short –Many have married thrice Remarriage has spawned a huge industry of services, magazines, and books

54 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Married More than Once? The content explores statistics on remarriages dest=http%3a%2f%2fold.socialexplorer.com%2fpe arson%2fspicemap.aspx%3fv%3da23bc82c7b0d4 a6d%26m%3dplay

55 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Remarriage as a Process Emotional remarriagePsychic remarriageCommunity remarriageParental remarriageEconomic remarriageLegal remarriage

56 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Some Characteristics of Remarried Couples Characteristics of remarried people depend on interrelated factors –Age and gender –Gender and race-ethnicity –Social class

57 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure Percentage of Americans Who Have Remarried, Age 35 and Older, by Sex Source: Based on Kreider and Ellis, 2011b: Table 6.

58 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure How Often We Remarry, by Sex and Race/Ethnicity Source: Based on data in U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 2008 Panel, Wave 2 Topical Module, Table 1, 2011, (accessed June 30, 2013).

59 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Remarriage Satisfaction People in first marriages report greater satisfaction –Differences are small Remarried mothers benefit psychologically from remarriage when: –Couple have a stable relationship –Children’s lives are going well

60 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Remarriage Stability Divorce are rates higher for remarriages –Getting married and divorcing at a young age –Viewing divorce as a quick solution for marital dissatisfaction –Intermarital birth –More boundary maintenance issues

61 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 11 Lowest rate of remarriage is found in _______. A.Whites B.African Americans C.Latinos D.Asian Americans

62 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 11 Lowest rate of remarriage is found in _______. A.Whites B.African Americans C.Latinos D.Asian Americans

63 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 12 Remarriage stability is higher because people learn from their mistakes. A.True B.False

64 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 12 Remarriage stability is higher because people learn from their mistakes. A.True B.False

65 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e The Diversity and Complexity of Stepfamilies What is a stepfamily? Types of stepfamilies Some demographic characteristics of stepfamilies How stepfamilies and nuclear families differ

66 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Stepfamilies in the United States: A Reconsideration The content looks into the aspects of stepfamilies oebook5.do?platform=1027&bookid=15318&pagei d=486

67 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e What Is a Stepfamily? Household in which two adults who are biological or adoptive parents with a child from a previous relationship marry or cohabit –Parents can be heterosexual, gay, or lesbian

68 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Types of Stepfamilies All the children are biological children of the mother and stepchildren of the father Mother-stepfather family All the children are biological children of the father and stepchildren of the mother Father-stepmother family At least one child is the biological child of both parents At least one child is the biological child of only one parent and the stepchild of the other parent, and no other type of child is present Joint stepfamily

69 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure Stepfamily Networks Source: Based on Everett and Everett, 1994: p. 132.

70 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Some Demographic Characteristics of Stepfamilies Stepfamilies have distinct demographic patterns that vary by: –Age –Race-ethnicity –Social class

71 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Gay and Lesbian Stepfamilies Face similar problems as that of heterosexual families Stepparent roles in lesbian stepfamilies –Co-parent family –Stepmother family –Co-mother family

72 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Stepfamilies and Nuclear Families Differ Complex structureMust cope with unique tasksExperience more stress and conflictFamily integration takes yearsRelationships may end or spring up abruptlyContinuous transitions and adjustments

73 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Stepfamilies and Nuclear Families Differ Less cohesiveLess flexibility in their everyday behaviorUnrealistic expectationsNo shared family historyLoyalty conflictsAmbiguity

74 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 13 Which of the following is a difference between stepfamilies and nuclear families? A.Nuclear families experience more stress and conflict B.Nuclear families go through transitions and adjustments C.Stepfamilies are more cohesive D.Stepfamily roles are often ambiguous

75 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 13 Which of the following is a difference between stepfamilies and nuclear families? A.Nuclear families experience more stress and conflict B.Nuclear families go through transitions and adjustments C.Stepfamilies are more cohesive D.Stepfamily roles are often ambiguous

76 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 14 In a mother-stepfather family, all the children are biological children of the mother and stepchildren of the father. A.True B.False

77 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 14 In a mother-stepfather family, all the children are biological children of the mother and stepchildren of the father. A.True B.False

78 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Living in a Stepfamily Parenting in stepfamilies Stepparent-stepchild relationships How stepfamilies affect children Some characteristics of successful stepfamilies

79 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Transitions in Parental Repartnering After Divorce The text looks in the affects of divorce oebook5.do?platform=1027&bookid=15318&pagei d=45

80 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Parenting in Stepfamilies Issues faced by stepfamilies when merging two households –Naming –Sexual boundaries –Legal issues –Distributing economic resources –Distributing emotional resources

81 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure Percentage of Children Living in Stepfamilies Source: Based on Kreider and Ellis, 2011a: Table 6.

82 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Stepparent-Stepchild Relationships Important issues –Gender roles –Stepchild-stepparent relationship development –Discipline and closeness –Intergenerational relationships

83 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Stepfamilies Affect Children Children in stepfamilies don’t fare as well as children in biological families Depends on the relationships among: –Children –Custodial and noncustodial parents –Stepparents

84 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Some Characteristics of Successful Stepfamilies Developing realistic expectations Letting children mourn their losses Forging a strong couple relationship Stepparent takes on a disciplinary role gradually Developing new rituals Working out arrangements between the children’s households

85 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 15 Which of the following is a characteristic of successful stepfamilies? A.Stepfamilies do not let children mourn their losses. B.Stepparent takes on a disciplinary role immediately. C.Stepfamilies forge a strong couple relationship. D.Stepfamilies follow old rituals of their families.

86 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 15 Which of the following is a characteristic of successful stepfamilies? A.Stepfamilies do not let children mourn their losses. B.Stepparent takes on a disciplinary role immediately. C.Stepfamilies forge a strong couple relationship. D.Stepfamilies follow old rituals of their families.

87 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 16 Family stress theories say that children in stepfamily households have more problems than children in nuclear families because the stepparents often invest less time and energy in raising their children. A.True B.False

88 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 16 Family stress theories say that children in stepfamily households have more problems than children in nuclear families because the stepparents often invest less time and energy in raising their children. A.True B.False

89 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Discussion Question Discuss the effects of divorce on children.


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