Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Divorce: Before and After. Chapter Outline Today’s High Divorce Rate Why Are Couples Divorcing Thinking About Divorce: Weighing the Alternatives."— Presentation transcript:
Difficulties in Reporting Divorces Number of divorces per year - There may be more divorces because there are more people. Ratio of current marriages to current divorces - Marriages took place in the current year, but divorces are from earlier marriages. Crude divorce rate - Includes those, such as children and unmarried, not at risk for divorce.
How Divorces Are Reported Lifetime records of marriage and divorce - doesn’t apply to younger couples because socio-historical conditions change over time. Refined divorce rate - does not predict whether one’s marriage will end in divorce.
Living Arrangements of Children Under 18 by Race/ethnicity, 2000
Why Are Couples Divorcing Loss of income increases the risk of divorce. Marriage has been redefined as a nonpermanent union. Spouses may enter the union with reservations and behave as if their marriage could end.
Why Are Couples Divorcing Fewer social, legal and moral constraints. Having divorced parents increases the likelihood of divorce.
Demographic and Behavioral Factors Related to Divorce Rates Remarried mates are more likely to divorce. Premarital sex and cohabitation before marriage increase the likelihood of divorce, but only when these take place with someone other than the future marital partner. Premarital pregnancy and childbearing increase the risk of divorce in a subsequent marriage.
Demographic and Behavioral Factors Related to Divorce Rates Young children stabilize a marriage. A government survey reported that as of 1996 blacks had the highest cumulative divorce percentage (48%) with non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics at about 40% and Asian/Pacific Islanders at 24%.
% Of Families With Incomes Below the Poverty Level
Perspectives: Negative Effects of Divorce on Children Life stress - accumulation of stressors results in problems for children of divorce. Parental loss - assumes both parents in the same house is best for children. Parental adjustment - quality of parenting is important in children’s adjustment to divorce.
Reasons for Negative Effects of Divorce on Children Economic hardship - assumes the economic hardship caused is responsible for problems faced by children with divorced parents. Interparental conflict - conflict between parents is responsible for the lowered well-being of children of divorce.
His and Her Divorce Both ex-spouses are victims. The first year after divorce is stressful for both ex-spouses. If economic discrimination faced by women and gender role expectations faced by men were eliminated, the difficulties could be alleviated.
Her Divorce Women who were married a long time lose the identity associated with their husband’s status. Older women have few opportunities for career development. Divorced mothers must provide financial and day to day support for their children. Custodial mothers struggle with money, scheduling and discipline problems.
His Divorce Anger, grief and loneliness may be aggravated by the male gender role which discourages them from sharing feelings with other men. Noncustodial fathers retain the financial obligations of fatherhood while experiencing fewer of it’s joys. Visitation is often awkward and superficial.
1. One model discussed in the text argues that spouses weigh their marital happiness against alternatives to the marriage as well as barriers to divorce. This design is derived from which theoretical perspective? a) functionalist b) exchange c) conflict d) interactionist
Answer: b One model discussed in the text argues that spouses weigh their marital happiness against alternatives to the marriage as well as barriers to divorce. This design is derived from the exchange theoretical perspective.
2. Remaining child-free is associated with a higher likelihood of divorce. a) True b) False
Answer: True Remaining child-free is associated with a higher likelihood of divorce.
3. Having parents who divorced does not increase the likelihood of divorcing. a) True b) False
Answer: F Having parents who divorced does increase the likelihood of divorcing
4. Experts agree that adjusting to divorce is easier for children and parents when former spouses a) recognize the inevitability of conflict. b) cooperate. c) are business partners. d) are affiliated with some organized religion.
Answer: b Experts agree that adjusting to divorce is easier for children and parents when former spouses cooperate.