Presentation on theme: "Separation and Divorce"— Presentation transcript:
1 Separation and Divorce Michael ItagakiSociology 275, Marriage and Family
2 America and Divorce Do we like/not like marriage? One of the highest marriage ratesOne of highest divorce ratesOne of highest remarriage rates
3 America and Divorce Discussion What are some reasons you personally might consider a divorce?Is falling out of love an appropriate reason for wanting a divorce?What were you taught growing up about the acceptability of divorce?
4 America and Divorce Idealization of marriage By 1974, more marriages ended by divorce than by death.Divorce = deviance vs. part of family life cycle
5 Measuring Divorce Divorce rate = 50%...correct? 2.2 million marriages annually1.1 million divorces annuallyQuestion: Divorced couples not from samegroup that got married in that same year?
6 Measuring Divorce All marriages and all divorces 60 million married couples in U.S.1.25 million divorces annuallyDivorce rate = 2%Figure 12.11
7 Measuring Divorce Crude Divorce Rate Number of divorces in a given year for every 1,000 people in the population.In 2002, there were 4.0 divorces for every 1,000 Americans.
8 Measuring Divorce Refined divorce rate. Measures the number of divorces that occur in a given year for every 1,000 marriages.In 1998, the refined rate was 19 to 20 divorces per 1,000 married women, meaning 2% of marriages ended in divorce.
9 Divorce Trends in the U.S. Both marriage and divorce rates have declinedThe marriage rate is at its lowest point since the 1930s.In more recent years the rate has declined.
10 Divorce Through the 20th Century and Beyond YearNumberRate Per 1,000 Married women190055,75131920170,50681940264,00091960393,0009.219801,189,00022.619951,169,00019.82001NA
11 Factors Affecting Divorce Shift from agricultural to industrial societySocial integrationIndividualistic American culture
13 Factors Affecting Divorce Life Course Factors:AgePremarital pregnancyRemarriage
14 Factors Affecting Divorce Life Course Factors:Intergenerational transmission (Amato, 1996)Parental divorce increases chance of child’s marriage ending within first five years by as much as 70%.Increased risk of divorce is especially great if both spouses experienced parental divorce.Effects are strongest when parents divorce early in child’s life (age 12 or younger)
15 Factors Affecting Divorce Family ProcessesMarital happinessChildrenMarital ProblemsNo Fault Divorce
16 Stations of Divorce(Bohannan) As people divorce, they undergo these “divorces” simultaneously.EmotionalLegalEconomicCo-parentalCommunityPsychic
17 Marital SeparationUncoupling—The process by which couples drift apart in predictable stages.The initiator voices complaints.Eventually, the initiator ends the relationship.Uncoupling ends when both partners acknowledge the relationship cannot be saved.
18 Marital Separation Separation Distress Ultimately, negative aspects of separation are balanced with the positive aspectsAlmost all attention centered on missing partnerEuphoria can follow, but fall back into separation anxiety.Separation distress slowly gives way to loneliness.
19 Marital Separation Postdivorce Identity Two phases of establishing new identity:TransitionRecovery
20 Marital Separation Dating Again Important for separated or divorced people.Formal statement of the end of a marriagePermits individuals to enhance their self-esteem.
21 Consequences of Divorce No-Fault Divorce: Putting women and children at a disadvantageEconomic consequences include:Impoverishment of womenChanged female employment patternsVery limited child support and alimony
22 Consequences of Divorce Non-economic consequences include:More psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, more social isolation, more health problems.Divorced people are three times as likely to commit suicide.Some divorced people experience higher levels of personal growth and greater autonomy.
23 Children and DivorceChildren in happy two-parent families are the best adjustedChildren in conflict-ridden two-parent families are the worst adjusted.Children from single-parent families are in the middle.
24 Children and Divorce Key to child’s adjustment: lack of conflict Telling children about separation:It’s very difficultRelief or not, guilt accompanies feeling
25 Children and Divorce Three-Stage Process of divorce for children: Initial stage—Turmoil is greatest.Transition stage—Adjusting to new family.Restabilization stage—Integration of changes.
26 Children and Divorce Developmental tasks of divorce: Acknowledging parental separationDisengaging from parental conflictsResolving lossResolving anger and self-blameAccepting the finality of divorceAchieving realistic expectations for later relationship success
27 Children and Divorce Children’s responses to divorce: Varies by age Younger childrenAdolescents
28 Children and Divorce Adjustment to divorce: Open discussion prior to divorceContinued involvement with noncustodial parentLack of hostility between divorced parents
29 Children and Divorce Adjustment to divorce: Good psychological adjustment to divorce by custodial parentStable living situation and good parenting skills.Continued involvement with the children by both parents
30 Children and Divorce Adjustment to divorce: Children of divorce suffer:Reduction of incomeWeakening ties with fathersLoss of “residential stability”Problems in schoolGreater likelihood of becoming teen parents.
31 Children and Divorce Adjustment to divorce: Not all children suffer negative consequences.90% of children with divorced parents achieve same level well-being as children of continuously married parents (Amato, 2003).
32 Child Custody Generally based on one of 2 standards: The best interests of the childThe least detrimental of the available alternatives.The major types of custody are sole, joint, and split.
33 Child Custody Sole custody Accounts for 85% of all U.S. divorce cases Women traditionally have been responsible for child rearingMany men do not feel competent
34 Child Custody Joint custody Accounts for 10% of cases. Joint legal custodyChildren live primarily with one parentBoth parents share in decisions regarding the children.Joint physical custodyRequires parents to work out practical logistics…as well as feelings about each other.
35 Child Custody Split custody Splits the children between the parents Usually girls live with mother, boys with father
36 Custody DisputesAs a result of custody disputes, as many as 350,000 children are stolen from custodial parents each year.Most are returned home within a week.
37 What to Do About Divorce Is divorce the problem or is it a solution to other problems?Cultural idea of divorceLegal matters of divorceCovenant marriagesNew family forms emerging