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Psychology Disorders Chapter 18—410--431 Standards: PSS6 Students will understand the causes and attributes of different mental disorders and the varying.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology Disorders Chapter 18—410--431 Standards: PSS6 Students will understand the causes and attributes of different mental disorders and the varying."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology Disorders Chapter 18—410--431 Standards: PSS6 Students will understand the causes and attributes of different mental disorders and the varying treatment options available to assist those who are afflicted.

2 Psychological Disorder: A harmful dysfunction in which behaviors are “MUDA”

3 “MUDA” Maladaptive: destructive to oneself or others Unjustifiable: does not make sense Disturbing: bothers other people Atypical: violates a cultural norm

4 The Medical Model Mental disorders are sicknesses that have physical causes. They can be diagnosed, treated, and (usually) cured.

5 Bio-Psycho-Social Model Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders

6 Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective

7 **How do “abnormal” thoughts and behaviors differ from “normal thoughts and behaviors? **Do most psychological disorders have biological causes? **What type of psychological disorders are there? Know What to Know 1 Learn 1

8 Read the Case Study p. 412 Read about Guilty by Reason of Insanity. Where did the plea originate? What is it’s background? What is the most famous recent case. Read the extra article (#9) Do you feel this is just? What reforms are being made? Answer the Thinking Critically questions to turn in.

9 Complete the following Organizer: What are the three steps in understanding psychological disorders? Identifying Symptoms Classifying

10 DSM-IV The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders A manual used for classifying psychological disorders. Lists symptoms but not causes of each disease

11 The Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders

12 What is/causes anxiety Several kinds—check out the chart 414. Causes— – Depends on who you talk to… – Depends on the background information – Some can be “simply” recognized – Some are very complex What you need to remember is that the anxiety is “REAL.” “Cowboy up” is not always a good answer.


14 Anxiety Disorders Definition--a general state of dread or uneasiness in response to a real or imagined threat Nervousness, inability to relax, concern of losing control Trembling, sweating, shortness of breath, feeling faint. Feeling anxiousness from time to time is normal it’s only when it interferes with your ability to have a normal life that it becomes a disorder

15 Journal Write about something in your life that may cause you anxiety and avoidance behaviors that help reduce your anxiety. I can tell you about not going to “scary movies” so I don’t have night mares Or avoiding places that may have snakes Or avoiding places that I know there is some one there I don’t want to deal with

16 Anxiety: A vague feeling of apprehension or nervousness

17 Types: 3 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder — unrealistic worry about life – Persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness – Last 6 months – Finances, work, relationship problems, illness – Some symptoms: feeling on edge, difficulty concentrating, lack of sleep Common –-treatment not always sought.

18 Types: 2 Panic Disorders Panic Disorders Short period of intense fear or discomfort Shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid heart rate Fear of another attack – Agoraphobia – Agoraphobia —fear of not being able to escape places or situations (large crowds, big places) Can lead to panic attacks Can lead to avoidance behaviors.

19 Types: 1 Phobias —”Fear of” Phobias —”Fear of” – Claustrophobia—fear of enclosed places – Acrophobia—fear of heights – Social phobia—fear of social situations Being looked at and “caught out” real or perceived. Leads to avoidance and a interference of a life style

20 Phobias

21 Google: List of phobias….


23 Types: 4 Obsessive-Compulsive disorder— Obsessive-Compulsive disorder— – Obsessions— unwanted thoughts, ideas or mental images that occur over and over – Compulsion—repetitive ritual behaviors often involving checking or cleaning something Sufferers usually know obsessions are unfounded but the compulsions can help the anxiety. Stress Disorders Stress Disorders —As we’ve studied.

24 7 Greatness Child Phobias 1.The Dentist 2.Food 3.Bugs/Dogs/Cats 4.School 5.Vomiting 6.Pigeon 7.Allergic Reaction to Peanut Butter


26 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Children with OCD—Prime Time Children with OCD—Prime Time Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Freaky Phobias—kids / how to help…

27 Explanations Psychoanalytical views —something has been repressed and is now coming to the conscious. (not widely accepted anymore) Psychoanalytical views —something has been repressed and is now coming to the conscious. (not widely accepted anymore) – Learning theorists believe phobias are learned in childhood – They believe that people avoid situations where they occur which can lead to a worsening.

28 Biological views Heredity MAY play a part. Twins have been studied Identical twins have a higher incidence of having the same disorders Studies have shown that children can show the symptoms as parents. OR do we fear things our ancestors did and that is passed down…

29 Personality Disorders Lasting, rigid behavior patterns that seriously impair one’s social functioning Divided into three clusters: – Related to anxiety – With odd and eccentric behaviors – With dramatic or impulsive behaviors


31 So sensitive about being rejected that they avoid personal relationships Behave in clingy, submissive ways and display a strong need to be taken care of

32 Paranoid Personality Disorder Deep distrust of other people, which gets in the way of personal relationships Detached, no social skills. Avoids intimate interactions at all costs True hermits, preferring life alone.

33 Exhibit instability of emotions, self-image, and relationships Often exhibit suicidal behavior

34 Antisocial Personality Disorder Absolutely no concern for the rights or feelings of other people No conscience and no remorse Formerly called psychopath or sociopath

35 Somatoform Disorders Psychological disorders in which symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause

36 Hypochondriasis Hypochondriasis Believing that one is sick and suffering physical symptoms without any underlying physical cause. Create illness for attention?... Interpreting illness for attention.. The illness may not be real but the emotional/psychological need is…

37 Conversion Disorder A loss of physical function due to high anxiety. These physical disorders are “real” –blindness, paralysis, etc. Unintentional An emotional overload?


39 Major Depressive Disorder A person, for no apparent reason, experiences at least two weeks of depressed moods, lack of interest in activities, feelings of worthlessness, sleep disturbance, and other symptoms



42 Dysthymic Disorder A chronic state of low energy and self-esteem that is a bit less disabling than major depression


44 Bipolar Disorder Alternating between the hopelessness of depression and an overexcited and unreasonably optimistic state of mania Formerly called manic-depressive

45 Causes Psychological Source is earlier (real or imagined) loss. Child internalizes misdirected feelings Guilt, loss of self-esteem leads to depression Perhaps learned helplessness—nothing I can do so…. The past was out of their control so will be the future? OR!! We talk ourselves in to depression!!! I really messed up… It’s my personality… It was my head cold… ____ is smarter than me… (see pg. 425 for more info) OR Everything is negative— the world, this school, me, you, which leads to feelings of depression.

46 Biological Occurs in close relatives (about 25% of population; ) Twins—identical more than fraternal… So does this mean genetic… Scientists also studying neurotransmitters melatonin and serotonin and their role in depression Do imbalances lead to depression— therefore can be treated with drugs? This study is hopeful…

47 Dissociative Disorders and Schizophrenia

48 Dissociative Disorders The sense of self has become separated (dissociated) from our previous sense of who we are

49 Dissociative Amnesia Loss of memory in reaction to a traumatic event Example: soldiers in combat

50 Dissociative Fugue Loss of identity and travel to a new location The person may develop a new identity and begin a new life.

51 Dissociative Identity Disorder A rare, controversial disorder in which an individual experiences 2 or more distinct, alternating personalities Formerly called multiple personalities

52 Schizophrenia A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

53 Symptoms of Schizophrenia – Delusions (false beliefs) – Hallucinations (false perceptions) – Inappropriate emotions or behaviors

54 Types of Schizophrenia

55 Causes of Schizophrenia Genetics suggest a predisposition to develop schizophrenia; it tends to run in families.

56 Remember the Iceberg? personality A bit more about our personality: – Freud believed the ”Id” is the personality we are born with to satisfy our basic needs. I’m hungry I want to eat… – The Ego develops next—it lives with and among the rest of society. It under- stands our place among others… We must share. – The Superego is the last personality to develop—it has to do with our moral beliefs—right and wrong. I want to but maybe I shouldn’t____ A refresher before we go on…

57 Think in these terms…. I’m hungry—I want those last cookies. No I need to share. It’s not right to take them all… Wonder if anyone else wants it or I should just take it? ID EGO SUPEREGO Basic Need Recognizing a place in society Moral obligations

58 Back to the causes of Schizophrenia Psychological Some psychologists believe it is the id overwhelming the ego and psychological conflicts occur. Within the conflicts, confusion between reality and fantasy occurs. This idea falls in and out of favor… Some psychologists believe family environment/conflict is at the root. Family pressure may push a person toward the condition BUT does not produce it…. Or so THEY believe.

59 Biological Problems look to occur in the frontal lobe (attention, memory, abstract, language) Perhaps a loss of synapses. What causes this—better said—what are the risk factors – Heredity—tends to run in family – Complications during pregnancy and birth— having the flu, maternal starvation – Birth during winter……???????? Wonder what that’s about?!?!?!

60 FYI "Seasonal variations in infectious agents, sunlight exposure and vitamin D, and the availability of nutrients have been proposed as possible explanations for the seasonality of births in schizophrenia. However, to date, no specific agent has been identified," conclude the authors.

61 Very important Reading in the book Mulitfactorial Model of Schizophrenia— p 429 Bottom line: Perhaps it is the “perfect storm” of all/some/the “right” circumstances to explain the disease… That’s my bet….

62 Just to show I’m equal opportunity…


64 Autism Autism is – one of a group of serious developmental problems called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) – that appear in early childhood — usually before age 3. – symptoms and severity vary, all autism disorders affect a child's ability to communicate and interact with others.

65 New data shows an average of 1 in 110 children have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies also show that autism is four to five times more common among boys than girls. An estimated 1 out of 54 boys and 1 in 252 girls are diagnosed with autism in the United States.

66 Autism Delayed development - slow to speak Unusual or severely limited activities and interests Repetitive movements - rocking, hair twirling Inflexibility with highly specific routines and rituals Overly focused attention on specific objects Lines things up Hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli - e.g. taste, sound, etc. Reduced sensitivity to pain Extraordinarily sensitive to sensations Self-mutilation

67 Early symptoms of possible autism – Regression - negative change from normal early development into impaired abilities; about 20% of cases have a regression Loss of language skills already acquired Loss of words Loss of social skills already acquired – Tantrums – Hyperactivity – Savant abilities - rare gift of very unusual abilities in music, math or other areas.

68 Autism Very early indicators that require evaluation by an expert include: no babbling or pointing by age 1 no single words by 16 months or two-word phrases by age 2 no response to name loss of language or social skills poor eye contact excessive lining up of toys or objects no smiling or social responsiveness

69 Later indicators include: impaired ability to make friends with peers absence or impairment of imaginative and social play stereotyped, repetitive, or unusual use of language restricted patterns of interest that are abnormal in intensity or focus preoccupation with certain objects or subjects inflexible adherence to specific routines or rituals

70 Treatment Behavior and communication therapies. – Some programs focus on reducing problem behaviors and teaching new skills. – Other programs focus on teaching children how to act in social situations or how to communicate better with other people. – Though children don't always outgrow autism, they may learn to function well with the disorder. Educational therapies. – Children with autism often respond well to highly structured education programs. – a variety of activities to improve social skills, communication and behavior..

71 Autism Medications. No medication can improve the core signs of autism, but certain medications can help control symptoms. – Antidepressants may be prescribed for anxiety, – antipsychotic drugs are sometimes used to treat severe behavioral problems.


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