Definition: a set of rules that govern how words are combined to form longer strings of meaning meaning like sentences.
Building Blocks Morphemes combine into Words combine into Phrases combine into Clauses combine into Sentences What are the rules in a language for using these building blocks?
Sentences There are over 200 definitions of the term “sentence.” Two of the most commonly used apply to written sentences : 1.Has a subject (noun/noun phrase) and a predicate (something that is said about the subject) 2.By punctuation: begins with a capital letter, ends with a full stop (.?!) Spoken language makes it more difficult to define “sentence”.
Phrases Three examples of types of phrases; 1. Noun phrases = a noun and its modifiers 2. Verb phrases = a verb and its modifiers 3. Prepositional phrases = a preposition, it’s object and modifiers
Noun Phrases Act as a subject in a sentence The cute little boy threw John the ball. boy + the cute little Act as a direct object in a sentence The cute little boy threw John the ball. ball + the Act as an indirect object in a sentence The cute little boy threw John the ball. John
Verb Phrases Is made up of the verb and its modifiers. Joan walked quickly and quietly. walked + quickly and quietly
Clauses Definition: a group of two or more words which include its own subject and predicate within the expression, but as a whole form only a part of a complete sentence
Types of Clauses Independent clauses are simple sentences Eg. Sarah patted the dog. Sarah (subject) + patted (verb) + dog (object) Dependent Clauses cannot stand alone Eg. When Sarah patted the dog,...
Concordance Rules (Also known as agreement) Units within a sentence must match each other Eg. Number: plural subject noun requires plural person verb