Presentation on theme: "A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development"— Presentation transcript:
1A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development John W. SantrockChapter 1: Introduction
2What is Human Development? It is a pattern of movement and changeSome things changeSome things stay the sameMovement & change include growth, transition, and decline.
3The Lifespan Perspective HistoryStudied child development since about 1900.Studied adult development since about 1960.The reason for the difference is cultural change & increased longevity (life expectancy).
4Life Expectancy Changes Lifespan, the maximum number of years a human being could live (about 120 years) remains relatively constant.Life expectancy, the number of years a person can expect to live when born in a certain place in a certain year, changes.U.S., yearsU.S., 2005, 77 years (30 year increase)
5What are the characteristics of the lifespan perspective? MultidimensionalBiologicalCognitiveSocioemotionalMultidirectionalGrowth and declinePlasticPotential for change
6Lifespan Research is Multidisciplinary Where did this information come from?Research and study in many fields of endeavor including psychology, sociology, anthropology, education, and medicine.
7What types of influences form the context of development? Normative age-graded (cultural)e.g., puberty, graduation, retirementNormative history-graded (historical)e.g., war, famine, earthquakes, terrorismNon-normative life events & conditions (personal)Individual experiences, biology, personality
8What types of influences form the context of development? Worldview – View of Human Nature
9Historical Views of Human Nature Prevailing views of children (human nature) throughout history?PreformationismOriginal SinTabula RasaInnate GoodnessHow does each view affect child-rearing practices?
10Historical View: Preformationism Time: 6th 15th CenturiesView: Children are basically small adults without unique needs and characteristics.Effect: Little or no need for special treatment
11Historical View - Original Sin Time: 16th Century (Puritan)View: Children are born sinful and more apt to grow up to do evil than good.Effect: Parents must discipline children to ensure morality and ultimate salvation.
12Historical View - Tabula Rasa Time: 17th Century, philosopher John Locke (behaviorist)View: Children are born “blank slates” and parents can train them in any direction they wish (with little resistance).Effect: Shaping children’s behavior by reward and punishment.
13Historical View – Innate Goodness Time: 18th Century, philosopher Jean Jacque Rousseau (humanist)View: Children are “noble savages” who are born with an innate sense of morality.Effect: Parents should not try to mold them at all.
14What are the issues of developmental psychology? Nature vs. nurtureStability vs. changeContinuity vs. discontinuity
15Issue 1: Nature/nurture Nature = biological inheritance (genetics)Rousseau (humanists)Nurture = all experienceLocke (tabula rasa)Is that all there is? (Is it neither?)Are they separable? Is it both?What is epigenetic theory?Interaction of nature and nurture
16Issue 2: Stability/change When characteristics are biologically inherited or the result of early experiences, can they be changed?(This is the issue of plasticity again.)Are the effects of early and late experiences equal, or are early ones more important (or later ones)?
17Issue 3: Continuity/discontinuity Did the change happen suddenly or gradually (first step; first word)?Is there a marker event?Does the old resemble the new (butterfly)?
18What does age have to do with it? How many ways can we conceptualize (think about) age?Chronological age: years since birthBiological age: health; vital organ capacityPsychological age: adaptable; learning; flexible; good judgmentSocial age: roles, expectations
19What are the periods (age groups) of development? These are not standard across textbooks. However, they roughly agree.Prenatal - conception to birthInfancy – birth to about 2 yearsEarly childhood – about ages 2-6 (preschool)Middle & late childhood – about ages 6-11Adolescence – ages or puberty until about ages or independence
20What are the periods (age groups) of development? Early adulthood – ages 20/25 – 40/45Middle adulthood – ages 40/45 – 60/65Late adulthood – ages 60/65 onYoung old:Oldest old: 85+
21To what extent are we becoming an age-irrelevant society? People‘s lives are more varied.We have a loose “social clock.”The frequency of reported happiness is about the same for all ages. (78%)
22Five Theories (Perspectives) of Development PsychologicalPsychoanalytic (Freud)CognitiveBehavioral and Social CognitiveOtherEthologicalEcological
23Psychoanalytic Theory: Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Eight psychosocial stages in the lifespanTrust v. mistrustAutonomy v. shame/doubtInitiative v. guiltIndustry v. inferiorityIdentity v. confusionIntimacy v. isolationGenerativity v. stagnationIntegrity v. despair
24Cognitive Theories (1960s) Emphasize thinking, reasoning, languageJean Piaget: Swiss ( )Children actively construct understandingFour stagesLev Vygotsky: RussianKnowledge is constructed through interaction with other peopleInformation ProcessingAnalogy between human brain & computer
25Behavioral Theories Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Pair a neutral stimulus (CS)with a stimulus (UCS) that automatically produces a response (UCR).John B. Watson: Emotional responses can be classically conditioned (Little Albert).B. F. Skinner: Operant ConditioningBehavior followed by a reward is more likely to occur again; punished behavior is less likely to occur again.
26Social-cognitive Theories Albert Bandura: Most social behaviors are learned by observing others, including anger, cruelty, and kindness.Reciprocal determinism: behavior, the environment, and the person (and their cognitions) mutually influence each other.
27Ethological Theory Based on study of animal behavior Considers the influence of biology/evolutionConsiders critical or sensitive periodsKonrad Lorenz: imprinting-rapid, innate learningJohn Bowlby: attachment
28Ecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner Emphasizes environmental conceptsMicrosystem: daily lifeMesosystem: relates microsystemsExosystem: influences from other social systemsMacrosystem: cultureChronosystem: (time) personal/social history
29Review of Theories Recommendations: We will not be studying these theories directly in this course. However, their general principles may be referred to in explaining developmental events or processes. If you feel that you need to review them, I would recommend:1. your textbook2. any Introduction to Psychology textbook3. www. allpsych.com4.5. Google the word in question, e.g., psychoanalysis, ethology, B. F. Skinner, etc.
30Why would you want to know about development? Life planning and coping.To anticipate events and changesTo avoid known pitfallsTo understand what is happening to youTo help others in the same ways
31Why would we collectively want to know about human development? How do we apply the results of research on lifespan development?Parenting advice, self-help, public information.Designing educational programs.Business & economic planning (e.g., insurance sales, marketing,) .Social policy decisions (e.g., laws on marriage, city planning, social programs such as welfare, social security, Medicare).
32Social Policy Example: Does the government have/spend adequate social welfare resources on children? Statistical Facts15% of US children (almost 50% of ethnic minority children) will be raised in poverty including increased risk for stress from violence, crowding, poor housing, family turmoil, etc.Social values, beliefs, and priorities.Parenting and nurturing the next generation of children is our society‘s most important function and we need to take it more seriously than we have in the past.Marian Edelman (Children‘s Defense Fund, 2004)
33Social Policy Examples Competing needs and priorities lead to research questions?40-50% of US children can expect to spend at least 4-5 years in a single-parent home.Drug-use and AIDS are still problemsOlder adults need more medical careGenerational inequity
34Data Where do we get our data? What information are we going to believe?
35What are the techniques of collecting data? ObservationSurvey/interview: asking questionsStandardized TestsPhysiological MeasuresCase StudyLife-history records
36What are the techniques of collecting data? ObservationLaboratoryNaturalisticPeople act/react differently when they know they are being watched.
37What are the techniques of collecting data? Survey/interview: asking questionsUnstructured/open-endedStructured, quantitativeAsk the right questions of the right people.
38What are the techniques of collecting data? Standardized tests: comparison of performance with othersRemember tests are cultural and they do not predict behavior in non-test situations.You may also have difficulty finding a test that measures your variable of interest.
39What are the techniques of collecting data? Physiological measures: hormones in blood; neurological measures (PET; fMRI)Remember there is never a one-to-one relationship between a physiological measure and a psychological state.
40What are the techniques of collecting data? Case study: intensive, in-depth study of a single case as with a physician-patient or therapist-patient relationship. Good for gaining insight.Life-history records: education, work, medical, family
41Research Designs Descriptive – includes more detail Correlational – numbers show strength & direction of relationshipUsed for predictionRanges from to (+ is direct; - is inverse)Remember: correlation does not equal causation
42ExperimentsManipulation in experiments means there is different treatment in different groups.The experimental group experiences the “real” treatment or manipulation.Control groups do not; they are for comparison. (“Placebo” controls get a fake treatment.)Random assignment of participants to groups ensures that groups start out the same.
43Experiments Provide Evidence of Cause-Effect Relationships This is because of control and manipulation.One situational factor (Independent Variable) is manipulated.A behavior (Dependent Variable) is measured.All other factors are “held constant” or the same in all groups. (This is control.)A change in the dependent variable (behavior) could only be caused by manipulation of the independent variable because all else was controlled.
44Research on How People Change across the Lifespan Cross-sectional research: People of different ages are measured in the same year.Cohort effects may occur. These are differences due not to common age, but common experienceLongitudinal research: The same people are repeatedly measured across different years.Expensive, time-consuming, dropouts
45Research on How People Change across the Lifespan Sequential or cross-sequential research: a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinalPeople of different ages are measure the first year. Then at intervals (e.g., 1, 5, 10 years), the same people are measured again and new groups are added.
46How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? We are information dependentBandura – learn from observing othersVygotsky – learn through conversation/communication with othersWhat is the world’s tallest mountain?Why do you believe that it is Everest?
47How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Robyn DawesWhy believe that for which there is no good evidence?(Or possibly evidence to the contrary?)Most of what we know, we actually believe that we know from authority and consensus.
48How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Authority implies that the knowledge is reliableSource is trustworthyNo ulterior motivesPossibly a good reputationIn position to have this type of knowledgeHowever, we often attribute this to consistency of report/public exposure (media).
49How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Consensus leads to lack of doubt.(Surely somebody would know if this is false.)The fallacy in consensus is that if the same misinformation (lie) is told often enough, everyone believes it for the truth.Becomes “common sense” (common nonsense)
50How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Ways to Know IncludeAuthoritative sourcesOpinions of others (consistent or not)Personal experienceIntuition (with or without confirmation)Reason (I figured it out.)Common senseData
51Consider the Limitations of Data Some things cannot be measured, or detected by the five sensesSome variables cannot be ethically or possibly submitted to experimentation, only correlationThis will not show causality.Correlations may be spurious.There may have been bias in data collection.The interpretation may be incorrect.Information for public consumption may be less accurate.
52How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? In our culture data trumps other sourcesRecorded evidence, we can all agreeMay not agree in InterpretationTend to discount “pre-scientific” claims to knowledge/understandingWe even discount “old” data.
53How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? This tends to lead to bias against non-data sources, earlier historical times, and less industrialized civilizations.“So easy a cave man could do it.”Don’t bother to study history.
54How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Led to the postmodern mindsetTruth is relative to the situation and changes across time.There is no ultimate truth that is unchanging.No reliable causes and effects.Reality is socially constructed.Idea that we create knowledge and reality, and it is what we say it is.Hence, we can change it.
55How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Contrast the prisca sapientia view.Was there a pristine and superior ancient knowledge?How else do you explain the writings of the ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Hebrews?How to you explain the Mayan calendar and the construction of the Egyptian pyramids?How was it lost?Did the search for it lead to modern science?
56How Do We Know? Or Do We Just Believe? Contrast the prisca sapientia view.The existence of this knowledge would imply a fixed and unchanging set of principles for operation of the universe and the natural world, including the biological world, and possibly for human nature and the social world.
57Practical Critical Thinking 1. Stop to think.2. Theories are not proven facts.3. Findings of research can be misinterpreted.4. Correlations are not evidence of causation.5. Be very suspicious of politicized research.6. Beware journalistic media as a source of presentation of scientific findings.7. Always ask whether the topic is more likely a law or principle rather than a social convention.