Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY AND NOTABLE DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS Child Development."— Presentation transcript:
PSYCHOLOGY AND NOTABLE DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS Child Development
Definition of Psychology Study of human behavior and mental capabilities. Explain human behavior. Want to help correct or cope with abnormal behavior. Brain research.
What Psychologists Study Knowledge acquisition (learning) Language development Memory Social interactions Morality development Motivation Brain functioning Personality Abnormalities in growth and development
Historical influences on Psychology Ancient civilizations. Late 1800’s began formal study of psychology. Legitimate science? Early researchers were trying to understand how the mind functions to control our behaviors. Fix “abnormal” people.
Developmental Psychology Study of changes that occur in humans across the lifespan. Child development – birth through 12 years. Early childhood development - birth to age 5. Preschoolers are children from ages 3-5. Child care - act of meeting needs of children.
Notable Child Development Theorists Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Robert Havighurst (1900-1991) Howard Gardner (1943 - )
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Swiss researcher. Advocate for the education of children. First psychologist to focus on child development theory. 4 stage theory.
Jean Piaget Theory 1. Sensorimotor Stage(birth to age 2) – children use senses to explore and understand their world. 2. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) – children gaining motor skills, cannot think logically, egocentric thoughts (self-centered). 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) – children think logically but only literally, no longer egocentric. 4. Formal Operational Stage ( 11-16 & into adulthood ) – capable of abstract thought and logical thinking.
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Born and raised in Germany Interested in the concepts of identity & personality Broke the lifespan up into 8 stages, each of which had a milestone to overcome. Milestones are referred to as “virtues.” Successful attainment of each virtue allowed a person to move onto the next stage of life.
Erik Erikson’s Theory of Personality Age – Developmental Task – Virtue Gained 1. Infancy (birth – 1) Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (hope) 2. Toddlers (1-3) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (will) 3. Preschooler (3-6) Initiative vs. Guilt (purpose/independence) 4. School-age (6-11) Industry vs. Inferiority (competence) 5. Adolescence (12-23) Identity vs. Role Confusion (fidelity) 6. Young Adult (24-40) Intimacy vs. Isolation (love) 7. Mid Adult (40-60+) Generativity vs. Stagnation (caring) 8. Old Age (60+) Ego Integrity vs. Despair (wisdom)
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Russian psychologist. Research was kept secret by the Russian government until the 1960s. Interested in the educational use of psychology. Theory called Social Development Theory Theory consists of three major themes: 1. Social interaction precedes learning 2. The More Knowledgable Other 3. Zone of Proximal Development Educator’s role is that of facilitator.
Robert Havighurst (1900-1991) American educator. Identified developmental stages of human growth and notable tasks to master during each stage. Stages: Infancy and Early Childhood (birth -6) Middle Childhood (6-13) Adolescence (13-18) Early Adulthood (18-30) Middle Age (30-60) Later Maturity (60+)
Robert Havighurst continued Developmental tasks of each stage are influenced by physical maturity, personal values, and social pressure. Tasks of early childhood include: learning to control limbs, speech, toileting, forming basic educational concepts (counting, letter recognition, shapes etc.).
Howard Gardner (1943 - ) Born in Scranton Pennsylvania. Currently teaches cognition at Harvard. One of the most prominent modern researchers. Developed the theory of Multiple Intelligences Theory proposes 8+ different ways to express intelligence: linguistic, mathematical kinesthetic, spatial, musical, naturalistic interpersonal and intrapersonal. Theory helps teachers reach all types of learners. Parents can address specific needs of their children. All children feel successful.