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Unit 4: Antebellum America George Inness, Lackawanna Valley Transformation and Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: Antebellum America George Inness, Lackawanna Valley Transformation and Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4: Antebellum America George Inness, Lackawanna Valley Transformation and Reform

2 How can technological and economic innovations affect the political and social attitudes of the people?

3 Antebellum (Pre-Civil War) America Three main areas of focus: Economic: Market Revolution Politics: Jacksonian Democracy Society: Social and Religious Reforms

4 The Market Revolution Comprised of a series of innovations in technology and transportation Two revolutions: Industrial Transportation

5 Industrial Revolution industrial-revolition#the-industrial- revolition

6 Industrial Revolution Occurred in America from Advancements in Textiles, Railroads, Iron, Coal (steam power)--TRIC Shift from artisan work to factory work Spurred economic growth as it became easier to produce things on a mass scale

7 Industrial Revolution Textile Industry sparked Industrial Revolution in the U.S. (during War of 1812) President Jefferson’s Embargo Act (1807) and subsequent War of 1812 ( ) dramatically decreased U.S. imports 1814, Francis Cabot Lowell built first dual- purpose textile plant at Waltham, Mass. Significance: Change from manufacturing at home to factories.

8 Inventions Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin, 1793 Cotton production became highly profitable "King Cotton" emerged in the South Slavery, which had been dying out, saw a dramatic increase By 1798: introduced principle of interchangeable parts

9 Inventions Samuel Slater, "Father of the Factory System", 1791 Built first efficient cotton- spinning machine "spinning jenny" in America Developed a factory system to mass produce textiles

10 Inventions Samuel F. B. Morse, Telegraph, 1844 Eventually provided instant communication across large distances. Significantly influenced business in the following decades

11 Inventions Elias Howe, Sewing Machine, 1846 Significance: Manufacturing of clothing went from the home to the factory. Isaac Singer developed the machine further

12 Industrial North Why did New England become center of the Industrial Revolution? Rocky soil discouraged cash-crop farming; manufacturing more attractive. Large amount of labor available. Shipping brought in capital while seaports made easy imports and exports. Rapid rivers provided water power.

13 Agrarian South Why didn’t the South industrialize? Capital resources tied up in slaves. Local consumers mostly poor, could not afford most finished products. By 1850, industrial output exceeded agricultural output in America

14 Write, Pair Share What predictions can you make about the different economies in the North and South? Jot down a few predictions. Share with a partner.

15 Transportation Revolution Transportation conditions prior to the transportation revolution were very poor Roads were bad much of the year: dusty in summer; muddy during rainy season. It cost more to haul a ton of goods 9 miles inland from the ocean than to transport it from Europe. Rivers ran mostly north and south; east-west travel often impossible for freight.

16 Transportation Revolution Turnpikes (Toll Roads) Cumberland (National) Road By 1852, linked Cumberland in western Maryland to Vandalia in Illinois Became vital highway to the west

17 Transportation Revolution Steamboats Robert Fulton: employed a steam engine on the Clermont in 1807 Significance: Changed all of America's navigable streams into 2-way arteries.

18 Transportation Revolution Canals Erie Canal (completed in 1825) in upstate New York--longest at this point Significance: Shipping costs and times greatly reduced; creation of new cities

19 Transportation Revolution Railroads Most significant aspect of the Transportation Revolution. Fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct; all-weather transportation through nearly all terrain.

20 Transportation Revolution Prime motive: desire of the East to tap the resources of the West Significance: Created a national market economy. Created regional specialization: west = grain; east = industry; south = cotton Facilitated movement of America’s population westward

21 Exit Ticket Write two truths and a lie about what you have learned today on one side of the notecard. Write the answer (the lie) on the back. Turn in to Mrs. V. M.


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