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Commonsense Vegetable Gardening for the Texas Gulf Coast By Thomas R. LeRoy Montgomery County Extension Agent - Horticulture.

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Presentation on theme: "Commonsense Vegetable Gardening for the Texas Gulf Coast By Thomas R. LeRoy Montgomery County Extension Agent - Horticulture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Commonsense Vegetable Gardening for the Texas Gulf Coast By Thomas R. LeRoy Montgomery County Extension Agent - Horticulture

2 Why Garden? Homegrown vegetables taste better. Homegrown vegetables taste better. You have control over what pesticides are applied. You have control over what pesticides are applied. Good exercise. Good exercise. Fun! Fun!

3 Planting By The Planting By The Moons?

4 How to be a Green Thumb Gardener Select Recommended Varieties. Select Recommended Varieties. Plant at the Right Time. Plant at the Right Time. Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization. Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization. Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects. Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects. Adequate Soil Moisture. Adequate Soil Moisture. Harvest at the Right Time. Harvest at the Right Time.

5 Ideal Garden Location Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Free of competition from other large plants, buildings, etc. Free of competition from other large plants, buildings, etc. Near a source of water. Near a source of water. Visible! Visible!

6 Garden Design Traditional Garden Box Garden Postage Stamp Garden

7 What is an Ideal Soil? pH 6.0 – 6.5 (Slightly Acid). pH 6.0 – 6.5 (Slightly Acid). 5 – 10% Organic Matter. 5 – 10% Organic Matter. 50% Pore Space ( Air, Water, Micro- organisms). 50% Pore Space ( Air, Water, Micro- organisms). Texture - Sandy to Sandy Loam. Texture - Sandy to Sandy Loam.

8 Soil Preparation Have a soil test run. Have a soil test run. Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Add bank sand or sharp sand to improve drainage. Add bank sand or sharp sand to improve drainage. Add nutrients if necessary. Add nutrients if necessary.

9 Cultural Practices Reduce Pesticide Use Healthy Soils Healthy Soils Resistant Varieties Resistant Varieties Planting Time Planting Time Proper Watering Proper Watering Soil Fertility Soil Fertility Sanitation Sanitation Weed Control Weed Control Diverse Planting Diverse Planting Crop Rotation Crop Rotation

10 Floating Row Cover 2° to 4° F of Frost Protection. 2° to 4° F of Frost Protection. Wind Protection. Wind Protection. Keeps Out Insects. Keeps Out Insects. Allows 85 to 90% Light Penetration. Allows 85 to 90% Light Penetration.

11 Growing Up Not Out

12 Composting – Recycle Yard Waste

13 Mulching Materials Compost Compost Leaves Leaves Pine Needles Pine Needles Hay Hay Grass Clippings Grass Clippings Paper Paper Plastic Plastic

14 Starting Your Own Plants from Seeds Select Proper Varieties. Select Proper Varieties. Sterile Potting Media. Sterile Potting Media. Sterile Containers. Sterile Containers. High Light Intensity for hours. High Light Intensity for hours. Regular Applications of Soluble Fertilizer Regular Applications of Soluble Fertilizer

15 Container Gardening Excellent for small yards or patio homes. Excellent for small yards or patio homes. Requires more care: Requires more care: Water. Water. Fertilizer. Fertilizer. Use large containers with a loose potting media to reduce compaction. Use large containers with a loose potting media to reduce compaction.

16 Harvest at the Proper Time Quality can vary greatly depending on time harvested. Quality can vary greatly depending on time harvested. Take the time to learn when the various vegetables should be harvested. Take the time to learn when the various vegetables should be harvested.

17 Warm Season Vegetables

18 Nightshade Family Tomato Tomato Pepper Pepper Eggplant Eggplant Potato Potato Tomatillo Tomatillo

19 Recipe for Successful Tomato Production

20 1. Plant large, vigorous plants. Incorporate ¼-½ cup of complete, slow release fertilizer at planting.

21 2. Wrap tomato cages with row cover.

22 3. Apply a weekly foliar spray of a water soluble fertilizer with micro- nutrients.

23 4. Work in 2-3 Tbs. of high nitrogen fertilizer when 1 st cluster of fruit sets.

24 Growing Potatoes

25 Eggplant

26 How to Produce Large Bells Select Hybrid Varieties. Select Hybrid Varieties. Plant When Soil Reaches 65-70° F. Plant When Soil Reaches 65-70° F. Fertilize Frequently With High Nitrogen Fertilizer. Fertilize Frequently With High Nitrogen Fertilizer. Remove The First Fruit. Remove The First Fruit.

27 Everyone's hot for Peppers Hot!

28 Pepper Varieties Worth Trying Red Cheese Pimento Senorita Jalapeno Mucho Nacho Jalapeno

29 Common Diseases and Insects of the Nightshade Family

30 Legume Family Green (Snap) Beans Green (Snap) Beans Lima Beans Lima Beans Southern Pea Southern Pea English Pea English Pea Edible-podded Pea Edible-podded Pea Soybean Soybean Jicama Jicama Runner Bean Runner Bean

31 Green (Snap) Bean Plant March-April and September Plant March-April and September Moderately Fertile Soil. Moderately Fertile Soil. Harvest When Pods are Young and Tender. Harvest When Pods are Young and Tender.

32 Lima (Butter) Beans Plant March - Early April and September. Plant March - Early April and September. Moderately Fertile Soil. Moderately Fertile Soil. Harvest When Pods are Mature and Seeds Fully Developed. Harvest When Pods are Mature and Seeds Fully Developed.

33 Southern Peas Plant April thru August. Plant April thru August. Prefers warm soil. Prefers warm soil. Requires moderately fertile soils. Requires moderately fertile soils. Harvest when pods are mature and start to yellow. Harvest when pods are mature and start to yellow.

34 Edible-podded Peas Plant Late September thru January. Plant Late September thru January. Moderately Fertile Soil. Moderately Fertile Soil. Most Varieties Need Support. Most Varieties Need Support. Light Production But High Quality. Light Production But High Quality.

35 Common Diseases and Insects of the Legume Family

36 Grass Family – Sweet Corn Plant March – April. Plant March – April. Fertilize at Planting, 1 Foot Tall & Tassel Visible in the Whorl with ½-1 Cup per 10 Ft. of Row. Fertilize at Planting, 1 Foot Tall & Tassel Visible in the Whorl with ½-1 Cup per 10 Ft. of Row. 90%+ Harvested the same day. 90%+ Harvested the same day.

37 Types of Sweet Corns Sweet Corn (su)- Traditional sweet corn with sweet flavor and creamy consistency. Sugar degrades rapidly to starch. Sweet Corn (su)- Traditional sweet corn with sweet flavor and creamy consistency. Sugar degrades rapidly to starch. Sugary Enhanced (se) – Tender kernels, much sweeter flavor and creamy consistency. Maintains sweet flavor much longer than traditional sweet corn. Sugary Enhanced (se) – Tender kernels, much sweeter flavor and creamy consistency. Maintains sweet flavor much longer than traditional sweet corn. Super Sweets (sh2)- Very crisp kernels, even after freezing, and a much higher sugar content. Sugar is very stable within the kernel but it lacks the creamy consistency. Super Sweets (sh2)- Very crisp kernels, even after freezing, and a much higher sugar content. Sugar is very stable within the kernel but it lacks the creamy consistency. Triple Sweets (su x se x sh2)- A combination of high sugar and creamy consistency, carrying a combination of traits from both sugar enhanced and super sweet varieties. Triple Sweets (su x se x sh2)- A combination of high sugar and creamy consistency, carrying a combination of traits from both sugar enhanced and super sweet varieties.

38 Plant Corn in Multiple Rows

39 Corn Insects and Disease

40 Cucurbit (Gourd) Family Cucumber Cucumber Squash Squash Cantaloupe Cantaloupe Honeydew Honeydew Watermelon Watermelon Pumpkin Pumpkin Gourd Gourd

41 Male and Female Flowers

42 Cucumbers Plant late March – April and September. Plant late March – April and September. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Easily trellised. Easily trellised. Harvest for pickles when fruit reaches desired size and slicers when near maturity. Harvest for pickles when fruit reaches desired size and slicers when near maturity.

43 Squash Plant late March – April and September. Plant late March – April and September. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Harvest Harvest Winter Squash when mature, rind hard. Winter Squash when mature, rind hard. Summer Squash when tender and immature. Summer Squash when tender and immature.

44 Melons Plant late April thru July. Plant late April thru July. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Easily trellised. Easily trellised. Harvest at full slip or tendril at base of fruit turns brown. Harvest at full slip or tendril at base of fruit turns brown.

45 Pantyhose Melons

46 Squash Vineborer Common Diseases and Insects of the Cucurbit Family Squash Bugs & Eggs Powdery Mildew Squash Bugs

47 Mallow Family Okra Okra Plant April thru July when soils are warm. Plant April thru July when soils are warm. Moderate fertility. Moderate fertility. Harvest when pods are small and tender. Harvest when pods are small and tender.

48 Okra Harvest

49 Okra Disease Nematodes Solarize Elbon Cereal Rye

50 Morning-glory Family Sweet Potato Sweet Potato Plant after soils have warmed, May thru July. Plant after soils have warmed, May thru July. Moderate fertility. Moderate fertility. Harvest when roots are fully cured. Harvest when roots are fully cured.

51 Cool Season Vegetables Plant from September thru February. Plant from September thru February. Heavy feeders. Use frequent, small applications of high nitrogen fertilizers. Heavy feeders. Use frequent, small applications of high nitrogen fertilizers.

52 Crucifer (Cabbage) Family Cabbage Cabbage Broccoli Broccoli Cauliflower Cauliflower Brussels sprouts Brussels sprouts Turnips Turnips Kale Kale Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Radish Radish Collards Collards Mustard Mustard

53 Cabbage

54 Broccoli

55 Cauliflower

56 Brussels Sprouts

57 Collards, Kale & Kohlrabi

58 Turnips and Mustards

59 Radish / Daikon

60 Composite (Sunflower) Family Cardoon Cardoon Globe Artichoke Globe Artichoke Radicchio Radicchio Lettuce Lettuce Endive Endive

61 Lettuce Plant when soil cools in fall & winter. Plant when soil cools in fall & winter. Seed needs light to germinate. Seed needs light to germinate. Refrigerate before use. Refrigerate before use.

62 Parsley (Umbel) Family Carrot Carrot Parsley Parsley Fennel Fennel Dill Dill Celery Celery Parsnip Parsnip

63 Carrots Plant seed from early October thru December. Plant seed from early October thru December. Seed need light to germinate. Seed need light to germinate. Give regular light applications of nitrogen fertilizer. Give regular light applications of nitrogen fertilizer.

64 Amaryllis (Onion) Family Onions Onions Leeks Leeks Garlic Garlic Shallots Shallots Chives Chives

65 Onions Plant seeds in early November, plants in January. Plant seeds in early November, plants in January. Low sulfur soil for sweet onions. Low sulfur soil for sweet onions. Fertilize with small amounts of nitrogen, frequently. Fertilize with small amounts of nitrogen, frequently.

66 Leeks Plant clusters of 5-8 seed every 6 inches. Plant clusters of 5-8 seed every 6 inches. Start to thin when pencil size. Start to thin when pencil size. Apply frequent, small amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Apply frequent, small amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Blanch to improve quality. Blanch to improve quality.

67 Garlic Plant cloves about 4 – 6 inches apart. Plant cloves about 4 – 6 inches apart. Small frequent applications of nitrogen. Small frequent applications of nitrogen. Harvest tops and roots as needed. Harvest tops and roots as needed.

68 Goosefoot Family Beets Beets Swiss Chard Swiss Chard Spinach Spinach

69 Cool Season Vegetable Insects

70 Lily Family Asparagus Asparagus Plant in well drained, organic soil. Plant in well drained, organic soil. Use high nitrogen fertilizers. Use high nitrogen fertilizers. Harvest for a short period in the spring and fall. Harvest for a short period in the spring and fall. Size of spears indicates plant vigor. Size of spears indicates plant vigor.

71 Buckwheat Family Rhubarb Rhubarb Plant, plants in early fall. Plant, plants in early fall. Treat as an annual. Treat as an annual. Benefits from afternoon shade. Benefits from afternoon shade.

72 Know the Good Guys

73

74 Integrated Pest Management Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Use only the most adapted varieties. Use only the most adapted varieties. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label.

75 The End

76 Recipe for Successful Tomatoes Plant large, vigorous plants. Incorporate ¼-½ cup of complete, slow release fertilizer at planting. Plant large, vigorous plants. Incorporate ¼-½ cup of complete, slow release fertilizer at planting. Wrap tomato cages with Row Cover. Wrap tomato cages with Row Cover. Apply a weekly foliar spray of a water soluble fertilizer with micro-nutrients. Apply a weekly foliar spray of a water soluble fertilizer with micro-nutrients. Work in 2-3 Tbs. of high N fertilizer when 1 st cluster of fruit sets. Work in 2-3 Tbs. of high N fertilizer when 1 st cluster of fruit sets.


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