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Start to Finish Vegetable Production Start to Finish Vegetable Production Juan Anciso Texas AgriLife Extension Service.

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Presentation on theme: "Start to Finish Vegetable Production Start to Finish Vegetable Production Juan Anciso Texas AgriLife Extension Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 Start to Finish Vegetable Production Start to Finish Vegetable Production Juan Anciso Texas AgriLife Extension Service

2 Why Grow Vegetables? Market Market What pesticides are applied. Organic vs. Man-made (synthetic) What pesticides are applied. Organic vs. Man-made (synthetic) Heirloom vs. Current varieties Heirloom vs. Current varieties Some vegetable grow well down here. Some vegetable grow well down here.

3 Source of Water Source of Water Municipal Municipal Costly Costly Drip Irrigation Drip Irrigation Well Well Know salt content Know salt content <1,400 ppm TDS good for vegetables <1,400 ppm TDS good for vegetables 1,400 – 2,100 TDS doubtful but good drainage, more tolerant 1,400 – 2,100 TDS doubtful but good drainage, more tolerant >2,100 TDS TDS doubtful but only drip irrigation should be used >2,100 TDS TDS doubtful but only drip irrigation should be used Canal Canal May not be available in your area May not be available in your area

4 Irrigation Method Irrigation Method Drip Drip Furrow Furrow Sprinkler Sprinkler

5 General Guidelines for Vegetable Planting Select Recommended Varieties. Select Recommended Varieties. Plant at the Right Time. Plant at the Right Time. Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization. Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization. Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects. Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects. Adequate Soil Moisture. Adequate Soil Moisture. Harvest at the Right Time. Harvest at the Right Time.

6 Location Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Free of competition (weeds and trees). Free of competition (weeds and trees). Near a source of water. Near a source of water.

7 Drainage Bedded Ground Raised Bed Flat on the Ground

8 Soils in the Valley pH 6.5 – 8.3 pH 6.5 – 8.3 < 0.8% Organic Matter. < 0.8% Organic Matter. High in Potassium and Calcium. High in Potassium and Calcium. Textures - Clay Loam to Sandy Loam. Textures - Clay Loam to Sandy Loam.

9 Average N – P - K Content of Horticultural Plants % N% P% K Ornamentals2.0 – – – 3.5 Fruits2.0 – – – 2.5 Vegetables2.4 – – – 4.0 Generally a ratio

10 Soil Preparation Have a soil test run. Have a soil test run. N-P-K N-P-K Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Add compost to improve drainage. Add compost to improve drainage. Add nutrients if necessary. Add nutrients if necessary.

11 Planting Equipment Push planter – gravity and pore size Push planter – gravity and pore size Tractor equipped – gravity and pore size Tractor equipped – gravity and pore size

12 Planting Equipment Tractor-equipped – vacuum and pore size

13 Integrated Pest Management Insects, Diseases, Weeds Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Use only the most adapted varieties. Use only the most adapted varieties. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label.

14 Know the Good Guys

15 Floating Row Cover Prevent Insects 2° to 4° F of Frost Protection. 2° to 4° F of Frost Protection. Wind Protection. Wind Protection. Keeps Out Insects. Keeps Out Insects. Allows 85 to 90% Light Penetration. Allows 85 to 90% Light Penetration.

16 Soil-borne Diseases Nematodes Solarize Elbon Cereal Rye

17 Weed Control

18 Plastic Mulch

19 Cool Season Vegetables Plant from September thru December. Plant from September thru December. Some are heavy feeders of nitrogen. Some are heavy feeders of nitrogen.

20 Crucifer (Cabbage) Family Cabbage Cabbage Cauliflower Cauliflower Broccoli Broccoli (difficult to get size) size) Kale Kale Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Radish Radish Collards Collards Mustard Mustard Turnips (greens) Turnips (greens) (easy) (easy)

21 Cabbage

22 Broccoli

23 Collards, Kale & Kohlrabi

24 Turnips and Mustards

25 Radish / Daikon

26 Goosefoot (Purslane) Family Beets (easy) Beets (easy) Swiss Chard (easy) Swiss Chard (easy) Spinach (easy) Spinach (easy)

27 Lettuce – Asteraceae family (Head –difficult Leaf - easy) Plant when soil cools in fall & winter. Plant when soil cools in fall & winter. Seed needs light to germinate. Seed needs light to germinate. Refrigerate before use. Refrigerate before use.

28 Umbel (Parsley) Family Carrot (easy) Carrot (easy) Parsley (easy) Parsley (easy) Cilantro (easy) Cilantro (easy) Fennel (easy) Fennel (easy) Dill (easy) Dill (easy) Celery (difficult) Celery (difficult)

29 Amaryllis (Onion) Family Onions (easy) Onions (easy) Leeks (easy) Leeks (easy) Garlic (difficult) Garlic (difficult) Shallots (easy) Shallots (easy) Chives (easy) Chives (easy)

30 Onions Plant seeds in September thru late November, transplants in December Plant seeds in September thru late November, transplants in December. Varieties are short day sweet onions (1015). Varieties are short day sweet onions (1015).

31 Warm Season Vegetables Plant Mid Feb- April 1 and August 15 to September 15 Plant Mid Feb- April 1 and August 15 to September 15 Some require moderate levels of nitrogen. Some require moderate levels of nitrogen.

32 Nightshade (Tomato) Family Tomato (Roma or cherry) (easy) Tomato (Roma or cherry) (easy) Pepper (Hot types) (easy) Pepper (Hot types) (easy) Eggplant (All types) Eggplant (All types) (easy) (easy) Potato (Difficult) Potato (Difficult) Tomatillo (Difficult) Tomatillo (Difficult)

33 Eggplant (easy)

34 Pepper Varieties Worth Trying Senorita Jalapeno Tam Mild I Jalapeno Mild Habanero Hidalgo Serrano

35 Legume (Bean) Family Green (Snap) Beans (easy) Green (Snap) Beans (easy) Southern Pea (easy) Southern Pea (easy) English Pea (difficult) English Pea (difficult) Edible-podded Pea (difficult) Edible-podded Pea (difficult) Soybean (difficult) Soybean (difficult) Jicama (difficult) Jicama (difficult) Pinto/black Bean (easy) Pinto/black Bean (easy)

36 Cucurbit (Gourd) Family Cucumber (easy) Cucumber (easy) Summer Squash (difficult) Summer Squash (difficult) Winter Squash (easy) Winter Squash (easy) Cantaloupe (difficult) Cantaloupe (difficult) Honeydew (difficult) Honeydew (difficult) Watermelon (difficult) Watermelon (difficult) Pumpkin (difficult) Pumpkin (difficult) Gourd (easy) Gourd (easy)

37 Male and Female Flowers Female Male

38 Cucumbers Plant mid Feb to April 1 and August 15 to September 15. Plant mid Feb to April 1 and August 15 to September 15. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Easily trellised. Easily trellised. Harvest for pickles when fruit reaches desired size and slicers when near maturity. Harvest for pickles when fruit reaches desired size and slicers when near maturity.

39 Squash Plant mid February to April 1 and August 15 to September 15. Plant mid February to April 1 and August 15 to September 15. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Harvest Harvest Winter Squash when mature, rind hard. Winter Squash when mature, rind hard. Summer Squash when tender and immature. Summer Squash when tender and immature.

40 Watermelons and cantaloupes Plant mid Feb to March 15. Plant mid Feb to March 15. Moderate Fertility Moderate Fertility Harvesting criteria important. Harvesting criteria important.

41 Mallow Family Okra (easy) Okra (easy) Plant March 1 through April 15 when soils are warm. Plant March 1 through April 15 when soils are warm. Moderate fertility. Moderate fertility. Harvest when pods are small and tender. Harvest when pods are small and tender.

42 Okra Harvest Too Large Just Right

43 Grass Family – Sweet Corn (difficult) Plant mid Feb. to April 1 and August 15 to September 15. Plant mid Feb. to April 1 and August 15 to September 15. Fertilize at Planting, 1 Foot Tall, & Tassel Fertilize at Planting, 1 Foot Tall, & Tassel 70 to 90 days until harvest. 70 to 90 days until harvest. Su - type Se - type

44 Types of Sweet Corns Sweet Corn (su)- Traditional sweet corn with sweet flavor and creamy consistency. Sugar degrades rapidly to starch. Sweet Corn (su)- Traditional sweet corn with sweet flavor and creamy consistency. Sugar degrades rapidly to starch. Sugary Enhanced (se) – Tender kernels, much sweeter flavor and creamy consistency. Maintains sweet flavor much longer than traditional sweet corn. Sugary Enhanced (se) – Tender kernels, much sweeter flavor and creamy consistency. Maintains sweet flavor much longer than traditional sweet corn. Super Sweets (sh2)- Very crisp kernels, even after freezing, and a much higher sugar content. Sugar is very stable within the kernel but it lacks the creamy consistency. Super Sweets (sh2)- Very crisp kernels, even after freezing, and a much higher sugar content. Sugar is very stable within the kernel but it lacks the creamy consistency. Triple Sweets (su x se x sh2)- A combination of high sugar and creamy consistency, carrying a combination of traits from both sugar enhanced and super sweet varieties. Triple Sweets (su x se x sh2)- A combination of high sugar and creamy consistency, carrying a combination of traits from both sugar enhanced and super sweet varieties.

45 Plant Corn in Multiple Rows


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