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The Art of Vegetable Gardening The Art of Vegetable Gardening Vincent J. Mannino, County Extension Director – Fort Bend.

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Presentation on theme: "The Art of Vegetable Gardening The Art of Vegetable Gardening Vincent J. Mannino, County Extension Director – Fort Bend."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Art of Vegetable Gardening The Art of Vegetable Gardening Vincent J. Mannino, County Extension Director – Fort Bend

2 Why Garden? Homegrown vegetables taste better. Homegrown vegetables taste better. You have control over what pesticides are applied. You have control over what pesticides are applied. Good exercise. Good exercise. Fun! Fun!

3 How to be a Great Gardener Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization Select Recommended Varieties Select Recommended Varieties Plant at the Right Time Plant at the Right Time Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects Adequate Soil Moisture Adequate Soil Moisture Harvest at the Right Time Harvest at the Right Time Plan and Prepare Plan and Prepare

4 Get a Quality Start! - SEEDS Seed sources to use: Seed sources to use: – Reputable catalogs – Reputable catalogs – Reputable local retailers – Reputable local retailers – Saved from open-pollinated sources – Saved from open-pollinated sources – New varieties – New varieties – Heirloom varieties – Heirloom varieties

5 Getting a Quality Start! - SEEDS Saving your own seed: Saving your own seed: – Hybrids will not be same as what you purchased – Disease potential. – Pick when mature. – Process properly – Store properly *** Keep accurate records each year!

6 Ideal Garden Location Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Free of competition from other large plants, buildings, etc. Free of competition from other large plants, buildings, etc. Near a source of water. Near a source of water. Visible! Visible!

7 Garden Design Traditional Gardens (raised) Box Garden (raised) Postage Stamp Gardens Traditional Gardens (raised)

8 What is an Ideal Soil? pH 6.0 – 6.5 (Slightly Acid). pH 6.0 – 6.5 (Slightly Acid). 5 – 10% Organic Matter. 5 – 10% Organic Matter. 40 – 45% Inorganic Matter (Sand, Silt or Clay) 40 – 45% Inorganic Matter (Sand, Silt or Clay) 50% Pore Space ( Air and Water). 50% Pore Space ( Air and Water). Texture - Sandy to Sandy Loam. Texture - Sandy to Sandy Loam.

9 Soil Preparation Have a soil test run. Have a soil test run. Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Add large amounts of bank sand or sharp sand to improve drainage. Add large amounts of bank sand or sharp sand to improve drainage. Add nutrients if necessary. Add nutrients if necessary.

10 Cultural Practices Reduce Pesticide Use (IPM) Healthy Soils Healthy Soils Resistant Varieties Resistant Varieties Planting Time Planting Time Proper Watering Proper Watering Soil Fertility Soil Fertility Sanitation Sanitation Weed Control Weed Control Diverse Planting Diverse Planting Crop Rotation Crop Rotation

11 Growing Up - Not Out

12 Composting – Recycle Yard Waste

13 Compost Materials Household organics Household organics Leaves Leaves Pine Needles Pine Needles Hay Hay Grass Clippings Grass Clippings Paper Paper

14 Starting Your Own Plants from Seeds Average last frost ~ March 5 Average last frost ~ March 5 Select Proper Varieties. Select Proper Varieties. Sterile Potting Media. Sterile Potting Media. Sterile Containers. Sterile Containers. High Light Intensity for hours. High Light Intensity for hours. Regular Applications of Soluble Fertilizer Regular Applications of Soluble Fertilizer

15 Container Gardening Excellent for small yards or patio homes. Excellent for small yards or patio homes. Requires more care: Requires more care: Water. Water. Fertilizer. Fertilizer. Use large containers with a loose potting media to reduce compaction. Use large containers with a loose potting media to reduce compaction.

16 Harvest at the Proper Time Quality can vary greatly depending on time harvested. Quality can vary greatly depending on time harvested. Take the time to learn when the various vegetables should be harvested. Take the time to learn when the various vegetables should be harvested.

17 Vegetable Family Members Nightshade – Tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper Nightshade – Tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper Legumes – Peas, beans (same family as clover) Legumes – Peas, beans (same family as clover) Grass – Corn Grass – Corn Cucurbit – Squash, pumpkin, watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber, gourds Cucurbit – Squash, pumpkin, watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber, gourds Mallow – Okra Mallow – Okra Morning Glory – Sweet Potatoes Morning Glory – Sweet Potatoes

18 Vegetable Family Members Composite – Lettuce, chicory, endive, escarole, salsify, dandelion, Jerusalem artichoke Composite – Lettuce, chicory, endive, escarole, salsify, dandelion, Jerusalem artichoke Parsley – Carrots, parsley, celery, parsnip Parsley – Carrots, parsley, celery, parsnip Amaryllis – Onions, garlic, leek, chive, Amaryllis – Onions, garlic, leek, chive, Goosefoot – Spinach, beets & chard. Goosefoot – Spinach, beets & chard. Lily - Asparagus Lily - Asparagus Mustards – Cabbage, collards, Brussel sprouts, kale, radish, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, turnip Mustards – Cabbage, collards, Brussel sprouts, kale, radish, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, turnip

19 Nightshade Family Tomato Tomato Pepper Pepper Eggplant Eggplant Potato Potato * Transplants

20 Recipe for Successful Production * Tomatoes can be temperature sensitive for fruit set

21 Tomatoes - Plant large, vigorous plants. Incorporate ¼-½ cup of complete, slow release fertilizer at planting. Tomatoes - Plant large, vigorous plants. Incorporate ¼-½ cup of complete, slow release fertilizer at planting.

22 Tomatoes - May plant as early as January 15 th in 1-gallon containers and grow in full sun until after the last killing frost. Tomatoes - May plant as early as January 15 th in 1-gallon containers and grow in full sun until after the last killing frost.

23 Apply a weekly foliar spray of a water soluble fertilizer. Apply a weekly foliar spray of a water soluble fertilizer.

24 Work in 2-3 Tbs. of high nitrogen fertilizer when 1 st cluster of fruit sets. Work in 2-3 Tbs. of high nitrogen fertilizer when 1 st cluster of fruit sets.

25 Fertilize every two weeks with at 1 Tablespoon per plant. Fertilize every two weeks with at 1 Tablespoon per plant.

26 Common Diseases and Insects of the Nightshade Family

27 Legume Family Green (Snap) Beans Green (Snap) Beans Lima Beans Lima Beans Southern Pea Southern Pea English Pea English Pea Edible-podded Pea Edible-podded Pea Soybean Soybean Runner Bean Runner Bean * Direct Plant Seeds

28 Green (Snap) Bean Plant March-April and September Plant March-April and September Moderately Fertile Soil. Moderately Fertile Soil. Harvest When Pods are Young and Tender. Harvest When Pods are Young and Tender.

29 Lima (Butter) Beans Plant March - Early April and September. Plant March - Early April and September. Moderately Fertile Soil. Moderately Fertile Soil. Harvest When Pods are Mature and Seeds Fully Developed. Harvest When Pods are Mature and Seeds Fully Developed.

30 Southern Peas Plant April thru August. Plant April thru August. Prefers warm soil. Prefers warm soil. Requires moderately fertile soils. Requires moderately fertile soils. Harvest when pods are mature and start to yellow. Harvest when pods are mature and start to yellow.

31 Edible-podded Peas Plant Late September thru January. Plant Late September thru January. Moderately Fertile Soil. Moderately Fertile Soil. Most Varieties Need Support. Most Varieties Need Support. Light Production But High Quality. Light Production But High Quality.

32 Common Diseases and Insects of the Legume Family

33 Grass Family – Sweet Corn Plant March – April. Direct plant seed Plant March – April. Direct plant seed Fertilize at Planting, 1 Foot Tall & Tassel Visible in the Whorl with ½-1 Cup per 10 Ft. of Row. Fertilize at Planting, 1 Foot Tall & Tassel Visible in the Whorl with ½-1 Cup per 10 Ft. of Row. 90%+ Harvested the same day. 90%+ Harvested the same day.

34 Types of Sweet Corns Sweet Corn (su)- Traditional sweet corn with sweet flavor & creamy consistency. Sugar degrades rapidly to starch. Sweet Corn (su)- Traditional sweet corn with sweet flavor & creamy consistency. Sugar degrades rapidly to starch. Sugary Enhanced (se) – Tender kernels, much sweeter flavor and creamy consistency. Maintains sweet flavor much longer than traditional sweet corn. Sugary Enhanced (se) – Tender kernels, much sweeter flavor and creamy consistency. Maintains sweet flavor much longer than traditional sweet corn.

35 Types of Sweet Corns Super Sweets (sh2)- Very crisp kernels, even after freezing, and a much higher sugar content. Sugar is very stable within the kernel but lacks the creamy consistency. Super Sweets (sh2)- Very crisp kernels, even after freezing, and a much higher sugar content. Sugar is very stable within the kernel but lacks the creamy consistency. Triple Sweets (su x se x sh2)- Combination of high sugar and creamy consistency, carrying a combination of traits from both sugar enhanced and super sweet varieties. Triple Sweets (su x se x sh2)- Combination of high sugar and creamy consistency, carrying a combination of traits from both sugar enhanced and super sweet varieties.

36 Plant Corn in Multiple Rows

37 Plant Corn in Blocks

38 Corn Insects and Disease

39 Cucurbit (Gourd) Family Cucumber Cucumber Squash Squash Cantaloupe Cantaloupe Honeydew Honeydew Watermelon Watermelon Pumpkin Pumpkin Gourd Gourd *Temperature sensitive for fruit set *Temperature sensitive for fruit set * Usually direct seed

40 Male and Female Flowers

41 Cucumbers Plant late March – April and September. Plant late March – April and September. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Easily trellised. Easily trellised. Harvest for pickles when fruit reaches desired size and slicers when near maturity. Harvest for pickles when fruit reaches desired size and slicers when near maturity.

42 Squash Plant late March – April and September. Plant late March – April and September. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Harvest Harvest Winter Squash when mature, rind hard. Winter Squash when mature, rind hard. Summer Squash when tender and immature. Summer Squash when tender and immature.

43 Melons Plant late April thru July. Plant late April thru July. Moderate Fertility. Moderate Fertility. Easily trellised. Easily trellised. Harvest at full slip or tendril at base of fruit turns brown. Harvest at full slip or tendril at base of fruit turns brown.

44 Pantyhose Melons

45 Squash Vineborer Common Diseases and Insects of the Cucurbit Family Squash Bugs & Eggs Powdery Mildew Squash Bugs

46 Mallow Family Okra Okra Plant April thru July when soils are warm. Plant April thru July when soils are warm. Moderate fertility. Moderate fertility. Harvest when pods are small and tender. Harvest when pods are small and tender.

47 Okra Harvest

48 Okra Disease Nematodes Solarize Elbon Cereal Rye

49 Morning-glory Family Sweet Potato Sweet Potato Plant after soils have warmed, May thru July. Plant after soils have warmed, May thru July. Moderate fertility. Moderate fertility. Harvest when roots are fully cured. Harvest when roots are fully cured. Plants or “slips” Plants or “slips”

50 Composite (Sunflower) Family Cardoon Cardoon Globe Artichoke Globe Artichoke Radicchio Radicchio Lettuce Lettuce Endive Endive * Direct Seed Seed

51 Lettuce Plant when soil cools in fall & winter. Plant when soil cools in fall & winter. Seed needs light to germinate. Seed needs light to germinate. Refrigerate before use. Refrigerate before use.

52 Parsley (Umbel) Family Carrot Carrot Parsley Parsley Fennel Fennel Dill Dill Celery Celery Parsnip Parsnip *Direct *Direct Seed Seed

53 Carrots Plant seed from early October thru December. Plant seed from early October thru December. Seed need light to germinate. Seed need light to germinate. Give regular light applications of nitrogen fertilizer. Give regular light applications of nitrogen fertilizer.

54 Amaryllis (Onion) Family Onions Onions Leeks Leeks Garlic Garlic Shallots Shallots Chives Chives

55 Onions Plant seeds in early November, plants in January. Plant seeds in early November, plants in January. Low sulfur soil for sweet onions. Low sulfur soil for sweet onions. Fertilize with small amounts of nitrogen, frequently. Fertilize with small amounts of nitrogen, frequently.

56 Leeks Plant clusters of 5-8 seed every 6 inches. Plant clusters of 5-8 seed every 6 inches. Start to thin when pencil size. Start to thin when pencil size. Apply frequent, small amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Apply frequent, small amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Blanch to improve quality. Blanch to improve quality.

57 Garlic Plant cloves about 4 – 6 inches apart. Plant cloves about 4 – 6 inches apart. Small frequent applications of nitrogen. Small frequent applications of nitrogen. Harvest tops and roots as needed. Harvest tops and roots as needed.

58 Goosefoot Family Beets Beets Swiss Chard Swiss Chard Spinach Spinach * Direct plant seed

59 Lily Family Asparagus Asparagus Plant in well drained, organic soil. Deep Plant in well drained, organic soil. Deep Use high nitrogen fertilizers. Use high nitrogen fertilizers. Harvest for a short period in the spring and fall. Harvest for a short period in the spring and fall. Size of spears indicates plant vigor. Size of spears indicates plant vigor. Takes 2-3 years to establish Takes 2-3 years to establish

60 Know the Good Guys

61

62 Integrated Pest Management Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Use only the most adapted varieties. Use only the most adapted varieties. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label.

63 Recommended Pesticides Insecticides Insecticides insecticidal soaps insecticidal soaps malathion malathion carbaryl carbaryl permethrin permethrin Fungicides Fungicides pesticidal oils- petroleum based pesticidal oils- petroleum based copper base copper base sulfur base sulfur base captan captan daconil daconil ALWAYS FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS ALWAYS FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS

64 The End


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