Presentation on theme: "Creation of the Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Creation of the Constitution Unit 2Creation of the Constitution
2 Essential QuestionHow did the Framers create the Constitution?
3 Unit OverviewLesson 8: What were the Articles of Confederation, and Why Did Some Founders Want to Change Them?Lesson 9: How was the Philadelphia Convention Organized?Lesson 10: Why Was Representation a Major Issue at the Philadelphia Convention?Lesson 11: What Questions Did the Framers Consider in Designing the Three Branches of the National Government? Lesson 12: How Did the Delegates Distribute Powers between National and State Governments?Lesson 13: What Was the Anti-Federalist Position in the Debate about Ratification? Lesson 14: What Was the Federalist Position in the Debate about Ratification?
4 Unit 2 PurposeAfter independence, the colonists first form of government, the Articles of Confederation, proved inadequate.Fifty-five men, the Framers, met to create the US Constitution, during which they debated the most basic ideas about political life and government institutions.In this unit, you will learn why the Articles were replaced, why the Constitution was created as it was, and how the debates over ratification raised issues debated to this day.
5 Lesson 8:What were the Articles of Confederation, and Why Did Some Founders Want to Change Them?
6 PurposeThis lesson examines the government formed by the Articles of Confederation.This document reflects the political realities and divisions among the states as well as the need for unity.,Many Americans felt the US government under the Articles lacked sufficient authority to meet the nation’s needs.
7 Objectives Describe the Articles of Confederation. Explain why some thought the Articles were too weak.Evaluate, take, and defend positions on..The strengths and weaknesses of the ArticlesThe significance of the Northwest OrdinanceAmerican’s mistrust of a strong national government
8 Terms to Know Articles of Confederation Confederation Shays' Rebellion ( ) The first constitution of the United States, created to form a perpetual union and a firm league of friendship among the thirteen original states. It was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. ConfederationA form of political organization in which the sovereign states combine for certain specified purposes, such as mutual defense. Member states can leave a confederation at any time. The United States was a confederation from to Shays' RebellionAn armed revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and mortgage foreclosures. The rebellion fueled support for amending the Articles of Confederation.
9 Why & How Were the Articles of Confederation Created? Americans realized that they would need some centralized leadership to address the following issuesManage relationships between statesResolve border disputesConduct relations with rest of worldAlong with Declaration of Independence, Second Continental Congress creates the first US government, the Articles of Confederation (1776)
10 Problems with the “Articles” Fear of a Strong Central Gov’tTo many, their state was their country.British government’s “abuse” of power could characterize a strong US governmentStudy of history suggested that republican gov’t can only succeed in small communitiesArticles considered a “firm league of friendship”Most powers of government were given to statesEx) Congress could not collect taxes, could not regulate trade
11 Problems Continued…Fear that some states would dominate central governmentThe following issues pitted states against each otherRepresentation and voting in CongressPayment for war expensesTerritorial claims in the West
12 The “Articles’” Achievements Secured recognition of American IndependenceCreated executive departments and admiralty courts (developed into Cabinet & Federal Court System)Northwest Ordinance (1787)Created process for territory to become a stateProhibited slavery in new territoryGuaranteed equality of new states
13 Weaknesses of Articles No power to taxCaused problems paying off war debtsNo power to force states to recognize agreements with foreign nationsDamaged trade relationsNo power to make laws regulating trade among statesNo power to makes laws directly regulating behavior of citizens
14 Attempts to Solve Problems Amendments never passed since all 13 states needed to ratifyMany leaders proposed a meeting, or convention, to discuss changesDelegates then met inPhiladelphia to proposechanges to the Articles
15 Shay’s Rebellion100’s of farmers in MA gathered to prevent courts from selling their propertyMany ex-soldiers were not paid their wages, therefore falling into debt and losing their farmsShays and his men attempt to capture weapons arsenalGovernor calls militia to put down rebellionFears generated by this and similar conflicts convinced many that a stronger national government was needed
16 How was the Philadelphia Convention Organized? Lesson 9: How was the Philadelphia Convention Organized?
17 PurposeThis lesson describes the important people and their first steps at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, 1787.The structure and rules set forth for debate played a major role by providing a framework for civil discourse.The Virginia Plan created the agenda for subsequent discussion & debate.
18 Objectives Describe the organizing phase of the convention. Explain the significance of rules and agendas for effective civil discussion.Evaluate, take, and defend positions ondetermining what interests should be represented in a constitutional conventionthe advantages and disadvantages of secrecy in governmental deliberations
19 Terms to Know civil discourse Constitutional Convention delegate Reasoned discussion as opposed to emotional display. Constitutional ConventionThe meeting held in Philadelphia from May to September 1787 at which the US Constitution was written. delegate(1) (noun) A person chosen to act for or represent others. (2) (verb) To entrust someone to represent your interests.federal systemA form of government in which power is divided and shared between a central government and state and local governments.national governmentThe organization having central political authority in a nation; the representative unit of political organization. proportional representationIn the context of American government, the electoral system in which the number of representatives for a state is based on the number of people living in the state. Proportional representation is used to determine the number of each state's representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives.
20 Those in Attendance of Philadelphia Convention 55 delegates from states (Framers)Ave. age 42, ¾ had served in CongressMost were prominent political leaders, very qualifiedGeorge WashingtonMost respected Military Leader in nationJames MadisonHad greatest influence on organization of national gov’tBenjamin Franklin81, poor heath, but internationally renown statesmenAlexander HamiltonMost prominent supporter of strong national gov’t
21 Who Did Not Attend? Thomas Jefferson John Adams Patrick Henry RI In Paris as US minister to FranceJohn AdamsUS ambassador to Great BritainPatrick HenryRefused to attend, suspicious of conventionRIOpposed to stronger national gov’t
22 Convention Rules At least 7 states must be present each day While speaking, others had to listenMember could not speak more than 2x on same questionCommittees appointed as necessaryAny decision subject to change until entire plan completeConvention’s proceedings kept secret
23 The Virginia PlanMany delegates wanted to completely scrap Articles, not just amendMadison proposes new, stronger governmentTwo governments, national & state (Federal system)Three braches of national governmentLegislative – make laws (most powerful)Executive – enforce lawsJudicial – interpret lawsLegislature (congress) would have two branchesHouse of Representatives – elected by the peopleSenate – Proposed by States, selected by the House
24 The Virginia Plan Continued Representation from each state in both houses based on population or amount contributed to federal treasury.Proportional representation means that states with a larger population have more representationCongress would have power to make laws that states were not able to makeEx) regulating trade between states
25 Why Was Representation a Major Issue at the Philadelphia Convention? Lesson 10: Why Was Representation a Major Issue at the Philadelphia Convention?
26 Purpose This lesson examines: The debate over what, or who, the national government will represent.The Great Compromise, which dealt with the makeup of the House and Senate.How population would be counted for representation in the House.How new states might receive representation in Congress.
27 ObjectivesExplain the differences between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan and the importance of the Great Compromise.Explain how the Framers addressed regional issues with the 3/5ths compromise and the provision for periodic census of the population.Evaluate, take, and defend positions on why major issues debated at the Convention are still on the national agenda.
28 Terms to Know Great Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise A plan accepted at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787 that called for a Congress of two houses: in the upper house, or Senate, representation of the states would be equal, with each state having two senators; in the lower house, or House of Representatives, representation would be apportioned according to the population of each state, so that states with more people would have more representatives. Also called the Connecticut Compromise.Three-Fifths CompromiseArticle I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, later eliminated by the Fourteenth Amendment. The clause provided that each slave should be counted as three–fifths of a person in determining the number of representatives a state might send to the House of Representatives. It also determined the amount of direct taxes Congress might levy on a state.
29 Disagreement Over Representation No disagreement over two-house CongressProportional representation was the issueMadison – states should not be represented as states in national government. Instead, representatives should serve the people.Those who sought Equal representation thought national government derived from and represented the States, not the people.Big states favored Proportional rep, small states favored Equal rep.
30 The New Jersey Plan Similar to Articles of Confederation One house Congress, equal representationMost delegates were convinced that a unicameral Congress would not work, and NJ Plan voted down.However, many small state delegates refused to accept Virginia Plan due to their concerns over large states’ power under proportional representation.Disagreement over this issue almost ended the convention.
31 The Great Compromise Great/Connecticut Compromise’s provisions House of Representatives= Proportional Rep.Senate = Equal Rep. (2 per state – chosen by state legislature)Senate appeased small states, House appeased big statesThe compromise passedby 1 vote
32 The 3/5ths Compromise What did proportional representation mean? Southern states want slaves to count towards representationNorthern states thought counting them would only benefit, and empower, slave ownersIf they are considered property, why should property be represented?The Compromisestate’s population, in regards to apportioning representation, would be equal to free population plus 3/5ths slavesSlaves also counted as 3/5ths when computing taxes paid by each state to federal government
33 Representation of New States New states would have full representation in congressA census would be taken every 10 years to reapportion seats in the House based on the shift in America’s population.
34 Lesson 11: What Questions Did the Framers Consider in Designing the Three Branches of the National Government?