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Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality and Relationships

2 Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)  Jenkens Activity Survey (Type A/Type B)  NEO Personal Inventory (Big 5)

3 Big Five Personality Traits 1.Extroversion 2.Neuroticism 3.Openness to Experience 4.Conscientiousness 5.Agreeableness OCEAN McCrae & Costa, 1990

4 Extroversion  Extroverts: High sociability, impulsiveness, like parties, crave excitement, focused on outer world, more friends  Introverts: quiet, reserved, reflective, like to think things through before speaking, focused within Cetola & Prinkey, 1986  “introverts are habitually in a state of greater arousal than extraverts, and consequently they show lower sensory thresholds, and greater reactions to sensory stimulation.” Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969  Lemon Test  Stereotypes of introverts/extroverts?introverts

5 Wundt’s Hedonic Curve Adapted from Cetola & Prinkey, 1986

6 Hedonic Curve for Introverts and Extroverts Cetola & Prinkey, 1986

7 Neuroticism  Unsociable  Withdrawn  Wish to indulge in social activity but fear of being rejected takes over  Different from introversion  Anxiety, self-consciousness, emotionally unstableemotionally  High: anxious, hostile, self-conscious, and impulsive McCrae & Costa, 1990  Opposite: Emotionally stable Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969

8 Openness to Experience  High  “Receptiveness to new ideas, approaches, experiences” (p.41-42)  Intellectually curious  Often appreciates art, literature, travel  More likely to hold unconventional beliefsunconventional  “free spirits”  Low  Prefer the familiar and practical  Resists change  Not necessarily close minded or intolerant of others McCrae & Costa

9 Conscientiousness  High  Achievement-orientated  Organized, dutiful, high level of motivation  Workaholics?  Low  Easy-going  Less exacting with themselves and with others  Slackers? Slackers

10 Agreeableness  Generous and trusting of others and want everyone to get along  Optimistic  Opposite: Antagonism  Tough-minded, non-accommodating of others  Place the interest of themselves above the interest of others  Often seen as uncooperative Which of these would you want your surgeon to be? Lawyer? Does this have anything to do with face theory?

11 Opposites Attract?  Marriage partners often have similarities (religion ethnicity, attraciveness, values) but complimentary personalities McCrae & Costa, 1990  Personality more important than other factors in predicting marital adjustment  Difference-detecting mechanisms Buss, 1996  I’m Outgoing and She’s Reserved: The Reciprocal Dynamics of Personality in Close Friendships in Young Adulthood Nelson, Thorne, & Shapiro, 2011  Interpersonal Theory  Self Expansion Theory Overall, “a series of compromises and adaptations evolve over a period of time” (p. 160) in any successful relationship McCrae & Costa, 1990

12 Desirable Personalities  In a long- term mate  Extroversion- ambitious about career  Neuroticism- emotionally stable  Agreeableness- kind  Conscientiousness- dependable, hardworking  Openness- intelligent, open-minded, creative Buss, 1996

13 Desirable Personalities  In a friendship  Extroversion- bold, self-confident, ambitious about career  Neuroticism- emotionally stable  Agreeableness- kind  Conscientiousness- hardworking, dependable  Openness- open- minded, creative, intelligent, wide range of knowledge Buss, 1996

14 Undesirable Personalities  Low on agreeableness  Neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual infidelity, inconsiderateness, self-centeredness  Emotionally unstable (neurotic)  Possessive, jealous, dependent, abusive, inconsiderate, physically self- absorbed, self centered

15 Other Undesirable Personalities  Low Conscientiousness  High instances of sexual infidelity, especially men  Low Openness  Sexualizing of others  “treating members of the opposite sex as sex objects; commenting about the attractiveness of others; expressing sexual desire for a movie star” (Buss, 1996).

16 Personality and Sexual Infidelity  Buss, 1996  100 married couples- took personality test as newlyweds and questioned 4 years later  Low Conscientious men AND women likely to cheat  Women high in openness to experiences likely to cheat  Submissive partners are likely to be cheated on

17 Nonverbal Communication and Personality When it comes to conversational distance:  Extraverts- likely to choose to sit opposite of other person and avoid positions that would put them at an angle  Introverts- choose positions that would keep that at more of a distance (visually and physically) sit diagonally Knapp & Hall, 2006

18 Nonverbal Communication and Personality  Dominant people show more eye contact than submissive people  Extraverted, Agreeable, and Open people show more gazing activity (eye contact) than other personalities Knapp & Hall, 2006  What does this mean for relationships?  Flirting?

19 Nonverbal Communication and Personality  Is there a relationship between personality/temperament and certain body types?  Some people believe there is a correlation

20  Calm  Anxious  Cheerful  Contented (often content. Happy or at ease)  Relaxed  Confident  Tense  Impetuous (impulsive)  Complacent (self-satisfied)  Reticent (reserved- don’t say everything you know)  Energetic  Self-conscious I feel most of the time _____, _________, and ______

21  Efficient  Enthusiastic  Reflective  Placid (calm, quiet)  Sluggish  Competitive  Leisurely  Meticulous  Precise  Determined  Thoughtful  cooperative When I study or work I seem to be ______, ______, and ___________.

22 Socially, I am ____, _____, and ________.  Outgoing  Affable (shows warmth and friendliness)  Tolerant  Gentle-tempered  Considerate  Awkward  Affected (emotionally moved easily)  Soft-tempered  Argumentative  Shy  Talkative  Hot-tempered

23 I am rather ____, ______, and ____.  Active  Warm  Domineering  Introspective  Forgiving  Courageous  Suspicious  Cool  Sympathetic  Serious  Soft-hearted  Enterprising

24 Other people consider me rather ___, _____ and _______.  Generous  Adventurous  Withdrawn  Dominant  Optimistic  Affectionate  Reckless  Detached  Sensitive  Kind  Cautious  Dependent

25 Pick one of each three  Assertive, relaxed, tense  Hot-tempered, cool, warm  Withdrawn, sociable, active  Confident, tactful, kind  Dependent, dominant, detached  Enterprising, affable, anxious

26 Section A  Forgiving  Sympathetic  Soft-hearted  Generous  Affectionate  Kind  Sociable  Soft-tempered  Warm  Affected  Tolerant  Dependent  Calm  Relaxed  Complacent  Contented  Sluggish  Placid  Leisurely  Cooperative  Affable

27 Section B  Dominant  Cheerful  Confident  Energetic  Impetuous  Efficient  Enthusiastic  Competitive  Determined  Outgoing  Hot Tempered  Argumentative  Talkative  Active  Domineering  Courageous  Enterprising  Adventurous  Reckless  Assertive  optimistic

28 Section C  Detached  Tense  Anxious  Reticent  Self-Conscious  Meticulous  Reflective  Precise  Thoughtful  Considerate  Shy  Awkward  Cool  Suspicious  Introspective  Serious  Cautious  Tactful  Sensitive  Withdrawn  Gentle-tempered

29 6510 Wells & Siegel (1961) stereotypes about personalities of people with different body types Knapp & Hall, 2006

30  Buss, D. M. (1996). The five- factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. J. S. Wiggins (Ed.) New York: The Guilford Press.  Cetola, H., & Prinkey, K. (1986). Introversion- extraversion and loud commercials. Psychology and Marketing, 3,  Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1969). Personality structure and measurement. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.  Knapp, M. L., & Hall, J. A. (2006). Nonverbal communication in human interaction (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.  McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press.  Nelson, P. A., Thorne, A., & Shapiro, L.A. (2011). I’m outgoing and she’s reserved: The reciprocal dynamics of personality in close friendships in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 79 (5), p


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