Presentation on theme: "INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION"— Presentation transcript:
1INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION Dimensions of PersonalityKathleen Ames-OliverUniversity Of KansasHR - Learning & Development
2Trait Theories of Personality Measuring Introversion - Extraversion Jung’s Type TheoryMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Five Factor Model (FFM) D.W.Fiske (1949)International Personality Item Pool (IPIP-NEO)Eysenck Trait TheoryEysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
3Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Based on Swiss psychologist Carl Jung’s “Type” Theory (1920s)Behavior is individual and predictableDeveloped by Katherine Briggs (mother) and Isabel Myers (daughter) (1940s)40+ years of researchMost widely used personality indicator in the worldApproximately 1 to 3 million people are administered the MBTI each year
4MBTI Preference Scales Extraversion IntroversionSensing INtuitionThinking FeelingJudgment PerceptionAs we go through the scales and activities and mark where you think you fall somewhere on the left or right of the line.We are all of these but we prefer to use more than others
5MBTIIntroversion refers to a tendency to prefer the world inside oneself. The more obvious features of introversion are reserve, distaste for social functions, and a love of privacy.Extraversion is the tendency to look to the outside world, particularly people, for one's pleasures. Extraverts are generally sociable and they enjoy social activities, but they don't like to be alone.
6Five-factor model (FFM) One of the more prominent models in contemporary psychology is what is known as the five-factor model of personality.The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience
7The five-factor model of personality The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions:conscientiousnessagreeablenessneuroticismopennessextroversion-introversionCosta, P. T. & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Psychological Bulletin, Vol 117(2), Mar ppconscientiousnessagreeablenessneuroticismopennessextroversion-introversion
8Five Factor Extraversion - Introversion Extraversion is defined as a trait characterized by a broad disposition to experience positive affects to seek out and enjoy social experiences, and to have the energy to pursue goals and be engaged in life's tasksIntroversion (low in E) is described as quiet, reserved, retiring, shy, silent, withdrawn, with emotional blandness and over-control of impulses.
9Eysenck’s Trait Theory Hans Eysenck ( )Eysenck focused on normal and pathological populations.He felt that many traits are biologically based and were shaped by evolutionary forces (e.g., extraversion, neuroticism).He used factor analysis to identify traits.
10Eysenck's Three Personality Factors: Extraversion (- Introversion).Neuroticism.Psychoticism.
11Extraversion -Introversion Introversion: tendermindedness; introspectiveness; seriousness; performance interfered with by excitement; easily aroused but restrained, inhibited; preference for solitary vocations; sensitivity to pain.Extraversion: toughmindedness; impulsiveness; tendency to be outgoing; desire for novelty; performance enhanced by excitement; preference for vocations involving contact with other people; tolerance for pain.
12Extraversion-Introversion Measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)High extraversion: Talkative, outgoing, likes meeting new people and going to new places, active, bored easily, hates routineLow extraversion: Quiet, withdrawn, prefers being alone or with a few friends to large crowds, prefers routines, prefers familiar to unexpected
13Extraversion-Introversion Eysenck’s theoryIntroverts have a higher level than extraverts of activity in the brain’s ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)People strive to keep ARAS activity at optimal level—introverts work to decrease and avoid stimulation; extraverts work to increase and seek out stimulation
14Extraversion-Introversion Eysenck’s theoryResearch indicates that introverts and extraverts are NOT different at resting levels, but introverts ARE more reactive to moderate levels of stimulation than extravertsThis work led Eysenck to revise his theory—the difference between introverts and extraverts lies in arousability, not in baseline arousal
15Extraversion-Introversion Eysenck’s theoryWhen given a choice, extraverts prefer higher levels of stimulation than introvertsGeen (1984): Introverts and extraverts choose different levels of stimulation, but equivalent in arousal under chosen stimulation
16Extraversion-Introversion Eysenck’s theoryIntroverts and extraverts perform task best under their chosen stimulation level, poor when performing under a stimulation level chosen by the other group
17The Culture VariableWestern countries show a preference for Extraversion.Eastern countries show a preference for Introversion.United States has a strong preference for Extraversion.
20Resources Five Factor Personality Test Eysenck Personality TestMBTI
21ResourcesQuiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking (Susan Cain)The Introvert Advantage: How to Thrive in an Extraverted World (Marti Olsen Laney)Do What You Are (Barbara Barron-Tieger & Paul Tieger)Life Types (Sandra Hirsh & Jean Kummerow)The Biological Basis of Personality (H.J. Eysenck)The Owner's Manual for Personality at Work: How the Big Five Personality Traits Affect Your Performance, Communication, Teamwork, Leadership, and Sales (Pierce J. Howard )