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Presentation on theme: "INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION"— Presentation transcript:

Dimensions of Personality Kathleen Ames-Oliver University Of Kansas HR - Learning & Development

2 Trait Theories of Personality Measuring Introversion - Extraversion
Jung’s Type Theory Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Five Factor Model (FFM) D.W.Fiske (1949) International Personality Item Pool (IPIP-NEO) Eysenck Trait Theory Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)

3 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Based on Swiss psychologist Carl Jung’s “Type” Theory (1920s) Behavior is individual and predictable Developed by Katherine Briggs (mother) and Isabel Myers (daughter) (1940s) 40+ years of research Most widely used personality indicator in the world Approximately 1 to 3 million people are administered the MBTI each year

4 MBTI Preference Scales
Extraversion Introversion Sensing INtuition Thinking Feeling Judgment Perception As we go through the scales and activities and mark where you think you fall somewhere on the left or right of the line. We are all of these but we prefer to use more than others

5 MBTI Introversion refers to a tendency to prefer the world inside oneself.  The more obvious features of introversion are reserve, distaste for social functions, and a love of privacy. Extraversion is the tendency to look to the outside world, particularly people, for one's pleasures.  Extraverts are generally sociable and they enjoy social activities, but they don't like to be alone.

6 Five-factor model (FFM)
One of the more prominent models in contemporary psychology is what is known as the five-factor model of personality. The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience

7 The five-factor model of personality
The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: conscientiousness agreeableness neuroticism openness extroversion-introversion Costa, P. T. & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Psychological Bulletin, Vol 117(2), Mar pp conscientiousness agreeableness neuroticism openness extroversion-introversion

8 Five Factor Extraversion - Introversion
Extraversion is defined as a trait characterized by a broad disposition to experience positive affects to seek out and enjoy social experiences, and to have the energy to pursue goals and be engaged in life's tasks Introversion (low in E) is described as quiet, reserved, retiring, shy, silent, withdrawn, with emotional blandness and over-control of impulses.

9 Eysenck’s Trait Theory
Hans Eysenck ( ) Eysenck focused on normal and pathological populations. He felt that many traits are biologically based and were shaped by evolutionary forces (e.g., extraversion, neuroticism). He used factor analysis to identify traits.

10 Eysenck's Three Personality Factors:
Extraversion (- Introversion). Neuroticism. Psychoticism.

11 Extraversion -Introversion
Introversion: tendermindedness; introspectiveness; seriousness; performance interfered with by excitement; easily aroused but restrained, inhibited; preference for solitary vocations; sensitivity to pain. Extraversion: toughmindedness; impulsiveness; tendency to be outgoing; desire for novelty; performance enhanced by excitement; preference for vocations involving contact with other people; tolerance for pain.

12 Extraversion-Introversion
Measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) High extraversion: Talkative, outgoing, likes meeting new people and going to new places, active, bored easily, hates routine Low extraversion: Quiet, withdrawn, prefers being alone or with a few friends to large crowds, prefers routines, prefers familiar to unexpected

13 Extraversion-Introversion
Eysenck’s theory Introverts have a higher level than extraverts of activity in the brain’s ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) People strive to keep ARAS activity at optimal level—introverts work to decrease and avoid stimulation; extraverts work to increase and seek out stimulation

14 Extraversion-Introversion
Eysenck’s theory Research indicates that introverts and extraverts are NOT different at resting levels, but introverts ARE more reactive to moderate levels of stimulation than extraverts This work led Eysenck to revise his theory—the difference between introverts and extraverts lies in arousability, not in baseline arousal

15 Extraversion-Introversion
Eysenck’s theory When given a choice, extraverts prefer higher levels of stimulation than introverts Geen (1984): Introverts and extraverts choose different levels of stimulation, but equivalent in arousal under chosen stimulation

16 Extraversion-Introversion
Eysenck’s theory Introverts and extraverts perform task best under their chosen stimulation level, poor when performing under a stimulation level chosen by the other group

17 The Culture Variable Western countries show a preference for Extraversion. Eastern countries show a preference for Introversion. United States has a strong preference for Extraversion.

18 McCrea’s Map

19 Ambivert? 16% Extravert 68% Ambivert 16% Introvert

20 Resources Five Factor Personality Test
Eysenck Personality Test MBTI

21 Resources Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking (Susan Cain) The Introvert Advantage: How to Thrive in an Extraverted World (Marti Olsen Laney) Do What You Are (Barbara Barron-Tieger & Paul Tieger) Life Types (Sandra Hirsh & Jean Kummerow) The Biological Basis of Personality (H.J. Eysenck) The Owner's Manual for Personality at Work: How the Big Five Personality Traits Affect Your Performance, Communication, Teamwork, Leadership, and Sales (Pierce J. Howard )

22 The Introvert Advantage Video


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