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Lecture 5 PERSONALITY II: Dimensions of Personality.

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1 Lecture 5 PERSONALITY II: Dimensions of Personality

2 Lecture - the various dimensions of personality Exercise: What is your type? The Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) –complete the survey and score it –exploring types –video (15 minutes - if we have time) So what? Class Outline

3 Dimensions of Personality The Big Five Model Cognitive Style (and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)

4 The Big Five Model of Personality Directed at the work place Five dimensions of personality –Extroversion –Emotional Adjustment –Agreeableness –Conscientiousness –Intellect/openness to experience

5 The ‘BIG FIVE’ Personality Dimensions extraversion/introversion –traits: sociability, gregarious, assertive, talkative, active emotional stability (neuroticism) –traits: anxious, depressed, angry, emotional, insecure agreeableness (likeability) –traits: courteous, flexible, trusting, cooperative conscientiousness (conformity; dependability) –traits: dependability, careful, thorough, responsible intellect (openness to experience) –traits: imaginative, cultured, curious, original, broad- minded

6 Evidence conscientiousness predicts performance for all occupational groups extroversion predicts performance for managers and sales representatives openness to experience and extroversion predict success in training

7 Cognitive Style Carl Jung’s proposal: –individuals have different preferences for how they approach the world, acquire information, process information, and make decisions Four sets of preferences (dimensions) –each with two opposite ‘poles’ –individuals vary along each of the four –gives 16 possible personality types

8 Cognitive Style (cont.) Four Dimensions –Introvert vs. Extrovert (inner v. outer world) –Thinking vs. Feeling (logic v. subjective view) –Sensing vs. Intuiting (detail v. broad focus) –Judging vs. Perceiving (resolution v. flexibility)

9 Orientation to the world: Extraversion vs. Introversion Extraversion - preference for: –action and interaction over reflection –talking things over with others to gain understanding –oral communication –taking the initiative in social and work settings –getting involved in social activities to ‘re- energize’

10 Orientation to the world: Introversion vs. Extraversion Introversion - a preference for: –reflection over action –thinking things through to gain understanding –written communication rather than oral –working alone or with one or two others –spending time alone in order to re-energize

11 Acquiring information: Sensing vs. Intuition Sensing - a preference for: –gathering facts and details –focussing on information from the five senses –an orientation to the present rather than the future –being patient with routine tasks but less patient with complexity –concentration on specific details of a task or problem rather than the big picture

12 Acquiring information: Intuition vs. Sensing Intuition - a preference for: –looking for patterns and relationships –focussing on what lies beyond the surface –an orientation towards the future rather than the here and now –being patient with complexity but less patient with routine –concentrating on the big picture rather than the details

13 Processing information: Thinking vs. Feeling Thinking - a preference for: –basing decisions upon logical analysis and cause and effect reasoning rather than personal values and beliefs –being analytical –being perceived as reasonable by others –wanting things to be fair even at the expense of harmony

14 Processing information: Feeling vs. Thinking Feeling - a preference for: –Basing decisions upon personal values and beliefs rather than logical analysis –being sympathetic rather than analytical –being perceived as compassionate –wanting a harmonious outcome even at the expense of equity and fairness

15 Decision making: Judging vs. Perceiving Judging - a preference for: –making decisions and obtaining closure –being systematic and keeping to a schedule –completing one project before starting another –committing to plans or decisions swiftly –Finishing tasks before deadlines

16 Decision making: Perceiving vs. Judging Judging - a preference for: –taking in all available information before deciding –being spontaneous and casual –working on multiple projects simultaneously –being flexible, keeping options open –finishing tasks at deadline

17 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Measurement of four dimensions giving 16 possible cognitive styles (e.g. INTP, ESFJ etc.) Aid for improving work team functioning Remember, no one type is ideal or best Even people who are the same ‘type’ are different - there are many other dimensions of personality The MBTI only measures preferences not abilities or aptitudes.

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