Presentation on theme: "Lecture 9 MOTIVATION Visiting Assistant PROFESSOR YEE-SAN TEOH Department of Psychology National Taiwan University 1 Unless noted, the course materials."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 9 MOTIVATION Visiting Assistant PROFESSOR YEE-SAN TEOH Department of Psychology National Taiwan University 1 Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
The Urge to Reduce the Drive Drive State of internal bodily tension Behaviors Serve to reduce drive Equilibrium Drive reduction is achieved
Equilibrium Homeostasis: body self regulates to maintain the conditions of its internal environment. Maintenance of our internal equilibrium: i. Internal adjustments of the body ii. Diverse sets of behaviors (e.g. eating when you’re low on calories) Examples of ‘drive’: Hunger, thirst, or the need for sleep.
THREAT & AGGRESSION AN EXAMPLE
Intense Threat Motive depends primarily on external triggers, such as a lion about to pounce. Genetic mechanisms play a role, but are also heavily shaped by our environment and our experiences.
Physiological Aspects of Threat & Aggression Mechanisms underlying our reactions to threat a. Sympathetic branch of the ANS – summons body’s resources in times of crisis, readies organism for vigorous action b. Adrenal medulla – stimulation induces release of epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine into the bloodstream – accelerates heart rate, speeds up metabolism, amplifies sympathetic effects even further.
The “Fight or Flight” Response (Cannon) Intense sympathetic arousal - emergency reaction to prepare for crisis. Allows more nutrient fuel to be available to the muscles and can be delivered rapidly through wide bloody vessels. At the same time, waste products are jettisoned & all less essential bodily activities are brought to a halt. Survival purposes.
Problems with F/F Formulation Organisms respond to threat in many different ways – some animals stand immobile so that predators are less likely to notice them and some animals change colors (i.e. neither fight / flight)
Problems with F/F Formulation Organism’s responses vary by gender – females seem to respond to stressful situations by “tending” (taking care of children) and “befriending” (using social support). Arousal of the sympathetic branch of the ANS can also be disruptive & damaging (e.g. chronic stressors such as traffic jams)
Threat as a Motivator of Aggression
Organisms engage in 2 forms of violence Aggression Predation Aggressive or self-defense behaviors are controlled by different brain areas. Triggered by different situations. Show different behavioral profiles. Motivated by threat. Predatory attack (hunting & killing for food) is motivated by hunger. Controlled by same brain sites as eating. No signs of anger – never growl before attacking prey.
Male Aggression & Hormones Among vertebrates, the male is by far the more physically aggressive sex (as adults, male murderers outnumber females by a ratio of 10:1). Gender difference only holds for physical aggression. Human females are also aggressive, but their aggression tends to rely on verbal or social assaults, not physical violence.
Why is Physical Aggression So Much more Prevalent in Men? High testosterone levels are associated with increased physical aggressiveness in many different species, but not for all situations/contexts. Some human aggression bears no relationship to testosterone levels, so must be due to other factors. High testosterone levels can be both a cause & effect of aggressive behavior, so it is inaccurate to say that testosterone causes aggression in all species.
Cognitive Aspects of Threat & Aggression Sources of Aggression a) Securing resources or maintaining a hold on what they think is theirs b) Symbolic concerns, such as insults to honor or objections to another person’s beliefs or behavior
Individual Differences in Aggression High Self-Esteem Social provocations are more likely to inspire aggression if the person provoked has unrealistically high self-esteem. The person is particularly likely to perceive the provocation as a grievous assault, challenging his inflated self-image, which often results in violence.
Individual Differences in Aggression Aggressiveness (a) Some people just seem aggressive in general, whether or not they are provoked. (b) Other people tend to feel (and display) a lot of anger, but it seems to translate into aggression only when they are provoked.
Individual Differences in Aggression Sensation seeking Tendency to seek out varied & novel experiences in their daily lives. Look for thrills & adventure. Highly susceptible to boredom. High levels of sensation seeking are associated with aggressiveness.
Individual Differences in Aggression Impulsivity Tendency to act without reflecting on one’s actions. High scores on tests of impulsivity are associated with aggressiveness.
Culture Aspects of Threat & Aggression Some cultures are more violent than others - Result is best attributed to social differences, not population density, economic conditions, or climate.
How does culture encourage or discourage aggression? 1. Explicit teaching – parents tell us not to be aggressive and punish aggressive acts. 2. Subtle cues – pick up on subtle cues that tell us whether people think that aggression is acceptable or unacceptable. 3. Observational learning – people around us model through their own actions how one should handle situations that might provoke aggression.
Example: Media Violence Investigators estimate that the average American child observes more than 10,000 acts of TV violence every year. Studies consistently show that assault & homicide rates increase after exposure to media violence. Studies also indicate that children who are not particularly aggressive become more so after viewing TV violence. However…it’s possible that those who view violence are violent themselves.
Is Aggression Inevitable? Natural selection- limits damage caused by aggression - ensures that animals aresensitive to the strength of their enemies. If the enemy seems much stronger than oneself, the best bet is to concede defeat quickly or never start the battle at all.
Motive Beyond Drives Other Than Internal Tension
Positive Goals We can also be motivated by positive goals – things that we seek and enjoy, like watching a sunrise or going to a concert. Two major motives that govern our daily activities: a) Motive to belong to groups b) Motive to achieve
Motive to Belong Motives to belong include i) Avoidance orientation – We do not want to be alone or rejected, so we take steps to avoid these experiences. ii) Approach orientation – We seek out the many benefits of being with others, including the positive emotion experienced in social interactions.
Benefits of Social Contact Tangible Support Emotional Support Practical help from many different people. Incl getting help proofreading an assignment. Emotional help we get from others. Direct – friend consoles us. Indirect – emotional connections we have to others.
The Motive to Achieve a. Fear of failure (avoidance orientation) – Don’t seek out challenges. b. Desire for success (approach orientation) – Seek out challenges and excel when the going gets tough. Achievement motivation is a powerful predictor of school performance.
Factors of motives to achieve? Parenting Style i. Some evidence that caregivers who punish failure & take success for granted can instill a fear of failure. ii. Rewarding achievement but not punishing failure can promote a more positive desire for success.
Cognitive Factors Mastery Orientation Performance Orientation Focus on learning & improving. In face of adversity, likely to increase effort & seek out ways of benefiting from the experience. Focus on performing well & looking smart or avoiding failure and not looking inept. In face of adversity or negative feedback, likely to withdraw effort & shift focus elsewhere.
Maslow & the Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Emotional Development (ED)
Emotions Serve Interpersonal Functions Expressions of emotion can I. Indicate social intent – when we smile we indicate that we are open to interacting with other people. II. Facilitate group functioning – when we show embarrassment, we indicate to others that we know we have made a mistake.
Perspectives on Emotional Development
1. The Genetic-Maturational Perspective Emotions are products of biological factors. Temperament determines intensity of children’s reactions to emotionally arousing situations and how well they regulate their reactions. A certain amount of physical maturation & social stimulation must occur before baby starts to smile. Most full-term babies begin to smile at about 6 wks ; premature babies born at 36 wks smile at about 12 wks.
2. The Learning Perspective (Conditioning, Imitation) Explains individual differences in emotional expression – different onsets, frequencies, intensities. Frequency with which children smile & laugh is influenced by the environment in which they were raised (Denham et al., 2007). Parents can influence ED by dismissing children’s emotional expressions & experiences (Gottman et al., 1996). Fears can be learnt via operant conditioning, imitation.
3. The Functionalist Perspective (Saarni et al., 2006) Emotions help us achieve our goals. E.g. Fear leads us to flee a scary situation, enabling us to achieve the goal of self-preservation. Information provided by others’ emotional signals guide behavior. E.g. Positive feedback from potential friend encourages us to continue developing the friendship. Memories of past shape future responses to similar situation.
Development of Primary Emotions Positive and Negative Emotions
Positive Primary Emotions: Smiling & Laughter In first few wks of life, babies show reflex or simple smiles, usually spontaneous and depend on infant’s internal states. Between 3-8 wks, infants begin to smile to wide range of external solicitors, incl social stimuli (Sroufe, 1996), especially human faces, voices.
By about 3mos, babies start to smile more selectively at familiar faces (Saarni et al., 2006). Babies also display genuine smiles more in interacting with caregivers than when smiling alone (Messinger et al., 2001).
Individual differences in smiling Some individual differences relate to social responsiveness of baby’s environment. Gender: newborn and teenage girls smile more than their male counterparts (Korner, 1974; La France et al., 2003).
Nationality/ethnicity: Children & adults in U.S. & Canada show larger gender differences in smiling than those in U.K. (La France et al., 2003). African American girls and boys show smaller differences in smiling behavior – parents treat boys & girls more similarly than European American parents do.
Negative Primary Emotions: Fear, Anger, Sadness At same time positive emotions develop, babies learn to be fearful of some events and people, especially unfamiliar ones (La Freniere, 2000) Fear of strangers (Sroufe, 1996) : wariness at 3mos, fear at 7- 8mos.
Stranger distress not universal – in cultures that emphasize shared caregiving, babies show little stranger fear (Tronick et al., 1992). Variations in fear of stranger depends on who stranger is, how he/she behaves, setting in which strange is encountered, child’s age (Saarni et al., 2006).
Social referencing (Saarni et al., 2006) Definition: process of ‘reading’ emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation. Infants learn to use others’ emotional expressions as a guide to their own actions – emotion regulates social behavior.
Anger Although few 1-month-olds show anger expressions when their arms are gently restrained, by 4-7mos, around 56% of babies show clear anger at this restriction (Sternberg & Campos, 1989). Infants usually display anger in response to particular external events, e.g. withdrawal of teething biscuit (Sternberg et al., 1983), inoculation (IZard et al, 1987).
Individual Differences in Emotions Babies who are more sociable show less stranger wariness than less sociable infants (Bohlin & Hagekull, 1993). Kagan (1998) identified subset of children as “behaviorally inhibited” – shy, fearful, introverted, avoid peers, more anxious and upset by mild stressors than other children. Individual differences in emotionality related to children’s adjustment (Lengua, 2002) : - Emotionally positive – high self-esteem, social competence, better adjustment. - Emotionally negative – depressed, conduct problems.
Recognizing Emotions in Others In mother-infant face-to-face interactions – babies recognize positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions (Izard et al., 1995). Nature of early experience, interactions between parents and infants predict ability to recognize emotions. Recognition and production of emotions are related.
Emotion Regulation The ability to control, diminish, or change one’s own feelings. Can mean influencing which emotions we have, when we have them, and how we experience or express them. Most common forms – efforts to decrease the experience or behavior assoc with anxiety, sadness, and anger.
Two Strategies of Emotion Regulation A. Cognitive reappraisal - Individual changes her emotional response to the situation by altering her appraisal of the situation. - Changing the meaning a situation has. - E.g. Instead of viewing a job interview as a matter of life and death, think about it as a chance to learn more about the company. - Little cognitive or physiological costs – makes one feel better.
B. Suppression - Attempts to decrease the emotion he shows on his face or in his behavior. - E.g. Instead of bursting into tears upon receiving disappointing news, a person might bite his lip and put on a brave face. - Leads to even greater sympathetic nervous system activation and maladaptive cognitive effects.
Emotion Regulation in Babies Methods of emotional control include looking away, covering faces, distraction via play. Infancy – intense and unregulated emotional expressions, By preschool years – expressions are less frequent, less distinct, less intense, less variable. (La Freniere, 2000).
Emotion regulation abilities – important predictors of later adjustment (Fox & Calkins, 2003). E.g. Better anger regulation = less aggressive & disruptive in kindergarten (Gillion et al., 2002). Gradual learning of emotional display rules – what emotions to show under what circumstances.
Culture and Emotional Behavior Cultural values shape how children: a) Appraise situations b) Communicate emotions c) Act on feelings Cole et al. (2002) – comparison of U.S and Nepali children: - U.S. value of self-assertion – endorsement of expression of anger. - Nepali value of interpersonal harmony – acceptance of difficult situation.
Children’s Thinking About Emotions Children eventually learn how to match emotions to situations by developing emotional scripts. 3-4-year-old children can identify situations that would lead to – (i) Happiness, sadness or anger (Borke, 1971) (ii) Excitement, surprise, fear (Levine, 1995) Emotional scripts become more complex with age – older children can match situations to secondary emotions (e.g. jealousy, pride). Cultural differences in emotions to same situation – e.g. disruption of play for nap.
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