Presentation on theme: "COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Part 1 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Part 1 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.
Emotions Responses of the whole organism, involving... physiological arousal (autonomic/hormonal) expressive behaviors (behavioral) conscious experience (cognitive)
Evolutionary Advantage to Emotion For example: Fight or flight response but can basic emotions help or overwhelm rational thinking?
A Biological Purpose for Emotion? Signaling function (that we might take action) Provide strong impulse to take action Promote unique, stereotypical patterns of physiological change and behavior
Emotions Negative Fear Anger Grief Hate Positive Love Empathy Caring Joy useful as motivation for moving away from what one doesn't want useful as motivation for moving towards what one does want
Psychological Reasons for Experiencing Emotion Catharsis energy release catharsis hypothesis “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Psychological Reasons for Experiencing Emotion Subjective State of Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life used along with measures of objective well- being physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life
Basic Emotions--presumed to be hard wired and physiologically distinctive Joy Surprise Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Are Emotions Universal?
James-Lange Theory of Emotion Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)
Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused cognitively label the arousal Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)
Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Performance level LowArousalHigh Difficult tasksEasy tasks
Cognition Drives Emotion Cognition Emotion
Cognition-Emotion Relationship Cognition: “I’ve been treated less than my worth” Emotion: Anger
Behavior Drives Emotion Behavior Emotion
Behavior Drives Emotions Facial Feedback Hypothesis Activation of “sad face” muscles makes subject feel sadder (from Larsen, et al., 1992)