Presentation on theme: "COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D. Part 1Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.
2 Emotions Responses of the whole organism, involving... physiological arousal (autonomic/hormonal)expressive behaviors (behavioral)conscious experience (cognitive)
3 Evolutionary Advantage to Emotion For example:Fight or flight responsebut can basic emotions help or overwhelm rational thinking?Antonio Damasio, in Descartes’ Error, asserts that concerted activity at all levels of the cortex assist rational decision making. For a reference citation, see your Reference list in the syllabus.
4 A Biological Purpose for Emotion? Signaling function (that we might take action)Provide strong impulse to take actionPromote unique, stereotypical patterns of physiological change and behavior
5 EmotionsNegativeFearAngerGriefHatePositiveLoveEmpathyCaringJoyuseful as motivation for moving away from what one doesn't wantuseful as motivation for moving towards what one does want
6 Psychological Reasons for Experiencing Emotion Catharsisenergy releasecatharsis hypothesis“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urgesFeel-good, do-good phenomenonpeople’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
7 Psychological Reasons for Experiencing Emotion Subjective State of Well-Beingself-perceived happiness or satisfaction with lifeused along with measures of objective well-beingphysical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life
8 Are Emotions Universal? Basic Emotions--presumed to be hard wired and physiologically distinctiveJoySurpriseSadnessAngerDisgustFear
10 Expressing Emotion Smiles can show different emotions: a) Mask anger (b)(c)(d)Smiles can show different emotions:a) Mask angerb) Overly politec) Soften criticismd) Reluctant compliance
11 Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Number of expressions MenWomenSad Happy ScaryFilm Type161412108642Numberofexpressions
12 Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,000Percentage very happyPersonal income
13 Experiencing Emotion Values and life satisfaction Importance scores MoneyLoveLife satisfaction0.60.40.20.0-0.2-0.4Importancescores
14 Theories of Emotion Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological activationExpressivebehaviorSubjectiveexperience
15 James-Lange Theory of Emotion Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuliFear(emotion)Poundingheart(arousal)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)
16 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:physiological responsessubjective experience of emotionSight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)Fear(emotion)
17 Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion To experience emotion one must:be physically arousedcognitively label the arousalCognitivelabel“I’m afraid”Fear(emotion)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)
18 Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Physical ArousalAutonomic nervous system controlsphysiological arousalSympatheticdivision (arousing)Pupils dilateDecreasesPerspiresIncreasesAcceleratesInhibitsSecrete stresshormonesParasympatheticdivision (calming)Pupils contractDriesSlowsActivatessecretion ofstressEYESSALIVATIONSKINRESPIRATIONHEARTDIGESTIONADRENALGLANDS
19 Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasksPerformancelevelLowArousalHighDifficult tasksEasy tasks
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