Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Part 1 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Part 1 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Part 1 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.

2 Emotions Responses of the whole organism, involving... physiological arousal (autonomic/hormonal) expressive behaviors (behavioral) conscious experience (cognitive)

3 Evolutionary Advantage to Emotion For example: Fight or flight response but can basic emotions help or overwhelm rational thinking?

4 A Biological Purpose for Emotion? Signaling function (that we might take action) Provide strong impulse to take action Promote unique, stereotypical patterns of physiological change and behavior

5 Emotions Negative Fear Anger Grief Hate Positive Love Empathy Caring Joy useful as motivation for moving away from what one doesn't want useful as motivation for moving towards what one does want

6 Psychological Reasons for Experiencing Emotion Catharsis energy release catharsis hypothesis “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

7 Psychological Reasons for Experiencing Emotion Subjective State of Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life used along with measures of objective well- being physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life

8 Basic Emotions--presumed to be hard wired and physiologically distinctive Joy Surprise Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Are Emotions Universal?

9 Expressing Emotion Culturally universal expressions

10 Expressing Emotion Smiles can show different emotions: a) Mask anger b) Overly polite c) Soften criticism d) Reluctant compliance (a)(b) (c)(d)

11 Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type Number of expressions

12 Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4, Percentage very happy Personal income

13 Experiencing Emotion Values and life satisfaction Money Love Life satisfaction Importance scores

14 Theories of Emotion Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological activation Expressive behavior Subjective experience

15 James-Lange Theory of Emotion Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

16 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

17 Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused cognitively label the arousal Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)

18 Physical Arousal Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

19 Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Performance level LowArousalHigh Difficult tasksEasy tasks

20 Cognition Drives Emotion Cognition Emotion

21 Cognition-Emotion Relationship Cognition: “I’ve been treated less than my worth” Emotion: Anger

22 Behavior Drives Emotion Behavior Emotion

23 Behavior Drives Emotions Facial Feedback Hypothesis Activation of “sad face” muscles makes subject feel sadder (from Larsen, et al., 1992)


Download ppt "COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Why Emotions Are Necessary Part 1 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google