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Использование технической лексики для создания метафор в английском языке.

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Presentation on theme: "Использование технической лексики для создания метафор в английском языке."— Presentation transcript:

1 Использование технической лексики для создания метафор в английском языке.

2 Оглавление 1. Introduction: 1) The aim of the research; 2) Steps of the research. 2. English modern metaphors: 1) Definition; 2) The main classification: a) Metaphors, connected with buildings and constructions; b) Metaphors, connected with tools; c) Metaphors, connected with transport. 3. Conclusion. 4. List of the literature.

3 Definition Метафора ( от др.- греч. μεταφορά — « перенос », « переносное значение ») — слово или выражение, употребляемое в переносном значении, в основе которого лежит неназванное сравнение предмета с каким - либо другим на основании их общего признака.

4 Метафоры слов, связанных со строительством, зданиями, частями зданий. Если посмотреть на метафоры английских слов, связанных со строительством, обозначающие здания и их части, можно заметить, что они часто применяются в значении создания и укрепления взаимоотношений и бизнеса. Их можно разделить на 2 группы : Глаголы, связанные со Словосочетания и слова, строительством связанные с частями здания To build To construct To demolish To cement Home Tower Back yard Ruins

5 To build I also tried to build an atmosphere of co-operation by asking what we could do to boost the business. Government grants have enabled a number of the top names in British sport to build a successful career. During this time he has built a fine reputation for high standards in the field. It builds on the work presented at a conference in January 1989. The second half of the chapter builds on previous discussion of change and differentiation in home ownership. The Guardian reports that the Labour Party is building on its lead position over the Conservatives.

6 To build Ten years ago, he and a partner set up on their own and built up a successful fashion company. The following year he borrowed enough money to buy his fist hotel and spent three years building up a hotel empire. While saving to travel abroad he also has to clear the debts he built up over three years of studying. The sea air built up her strength. His report says 10 am is the best time to ask for favours, before stress build up and people become irritable. Express any resentment quickly, politely and firmly, before it builds up into uncontrollable anger. By early afternoon queues were already building up. The enemy are building up their reserves. In summer traffic builds up along the coast roads.

7 To construct The truth is that standard economic models constructed on the evidence of past experience are of little use. In an attempt to overcome that, the city is actually constructing an environmental protection plan. These are affected by many factors: the child's and the mother's personalities, social circumstances, and the way motherhood is constructed in our society. Feminism must integrate the experiences of black women and take on board an understanding of racially constructed gender roles.

8 To demolish In his toughest speech yet on the economy, Mr. Major demolished his critics. The newspaper published an article by its chief political columnist which demolished this argument. McCarthy demolishes the romantic myths of the Wild West. Arsenal showed their worth in the demolition of their North London rivals. …Swansea's demolition of the world champions.

9 To cement …cementing a successful business relationship. The police team has cemented close ties with the hospital staff. Doing things together cements friendships; most of my close friends are people I've worked with in some way or other. It was no surprise when they cemented victory in the 66 th minute with another outstanding goal. It was a part she knows could have won her an Oscar nomination and cemented her career, but ill-health got in the way. In the process he cemented his control over the company.

10 Home Germany's Green Party provided a political home for people who felt their needs weren't being met by any of the traditional parties. The party works on a local level as a home for conservative councillors. They are the people most likely to be at home dealing with these problems. These people have relations and good contacts in China and feel at home with the mainland's informal ways of doing business.

11 Home Having now seen their schooling systems, it has been brought home to me just how far we lag behind. The risk of assassination was again brought home to Churchill and Roosevelt in January 1943 when they met at Casablanca. It was a week of contrasts to bring home the harsh reality of life in modern-day Moscow. There was a huge propaganda campaign to drive home the message. Thirty years of industrial experience drove that lesson home.

12 Back Yard He said Europe had to clean up its back yard. The first company on which he led the investigation was right in his back yard.

13 Tower The country now towers over its neighbours both in terms of population and wealth. Polls indicate that he towers above the party's other potential candidates in public fame. In profit, production and most other things, Japan's two giants of consumer electronics tower above the rest of the industry. Rosemary has been a tower of strength. She likes to stay in the background but she is determined. Picasso was the towering genius of the period. Although dead, he remains a towering figure. That these were towering intellectual achievements was not in doubt; however their influence was not great.

14 Ruins …citizens fleeing their country's economic ruins. She lay back for a few moment's contemplating the ruins of her idealism and her innocence. His career was in ruins. With its economy in ruins, it can't afford to involve itself in military action. Now another young woman's life is in ruins after an appalling attack.

15 Addition Особый интерес представляет ассоциация общества с некоторым довольно сложным зданием и строением. Она присутствует и в русском языке. Эта метафора позволяет выделять в обществе базис, различные структуры ( инфраструктуры, надстройки, иерархические лестницы и ступени ), несущие опоры, блоки. Об обществе говорят в терминах строительства, воздвижения здания, разрушения, а коренные изменения в социуме интерпретируются как его перестройка.

16 Метафоры слов, относящихся к работе с инструментами. Инструмент — предмет, устройство или машина, используемые для воздействия на объект : его изменения, изучения или измерения В широком смысле — средство воздействия на объект ( или для создания объекта ). Но орудие, не вспомогательный материал : при стирке белья стиральная доска — инструмент, а стиральный порошок — нет. Tool Instrument Lever and LeverageTo grind NailTo sharpen HammerTo weld Forge

17 Tool They despise you anyway as a tool of imperialism. In this country the police are essentially a tool of repression. The churches in East Germany were never simple tools of the communist party. The tests are a powerful tool for raising standards. Long-term credit is a key selling tool which should be costed in the same way as other forms of sales promotion. Use this book as a diagnostic tool to help you see when you do need outside support.

18 Instrument The organization now likes to present itself as an enthusiastic supporter of political reform, not an instrument of repression. Nuclear weapons had made war too devastating to be an instrument of policy.

19 Lever They may use it as a bargaining lever. The industrial planners' main lever of control has been their ability to direct cheap credit to the borrowers they favour. That will give the Treasury a new lever to prize open foreign banking markets. The teaching unions will try to lever up pay levels at individual negotiations. By promising to contribute, they levered Margaret Thatcher's government into pledging money for an extension of the Jubilee Line.

20 Leverage They have little leverage beyond moral pressure. The nature of the department store puts them at a disadvantage compared with more specialized retailers when it comes to exerting leverage over suppliers. States may now have little leverage to force hospitals to hod down costs.

21 Hammer High interest rates and adverse economic conditions have hammered the UK market. The show was hammered by critics. Many businesses are finding themselves increasingly hammered by new rules and regulations. German officials have hammered out a compromise which involves the Americans giving only technical assistance. There may well be some way to go before the final details have been hammered out. He hammered away at the point until he got them to agree We hammered away at the contract all morning I hammered away at my thesis all week

22 Nail They did not arrest him that night. They felt that they had already nailed him. I wouldn't come up here again, not until we've nailed this killer. The challenge for investigators is to nail down the details. If you can nail down a delivery time, you must then negotiate the negotiate the exact terms of installation. They've been keen to nail down the ruling family's vague promises about political reform.

23 Forge Industry and education forged a strong partnership. Taylor has forged a closer relationship with his wife since the shooting. As the Socialist Party's most decisive leader, he forged an alliance with the Christian Democrats. A new atmosphere of trust must be forged.

24 To weld The diverse ethnic groups had been welded together by the great anti-fascist cause. He said that Europe was not yet properly welded together by common values. She has both the authority and the personality to weld the party together.

25 To sharpen It won't tell us exactly what's going on, but it will certainly sharpen our understanding of the general principles. Racing on such roads, lined by massive marker posts, trees, drops, walls and housed, taught Moss precision and sharpened his fine judgment. The Director General was taking breakfast at his desk, his appetite sharpened by the brisk walk over Hungerford bridge. "How is she?" Amy asked, anxiety sharpening her voice. By 1971, however, the JDL had become a violent fringe group manipulated to sharpen tensions between Jews blacks.

26 To grind They are where the poverty grinds hardest. The recession grinds on. I've never let male colleagues grind me down. They are ground down by struggling for equality.

27 To grind Festivals provided a much-needed break from the hard grind of daily work. Have you ever thought of the kind of personality it takes to get through the tough grind of medical school? Washing machines and dishwashers have certainly taken the grind out of some household chores. Their grandfather had lift his village a century ago in order to escape the grinding poverty.

28 Метафоры слов, обозначающих транспортные средства Транспортные средства, например, автобусы или машины, перевозят людей или грузы из одного места в другое. Метафоры, связанные со средствами передвижения, чаще всего используются с той же целью. Vehicle Gear Brake To steer

29 Vehicle...the understanding that education and training matter, that they are crucial vehicles for individual development. Every effort will be made to stop them using banks as vehicles for financing their subsidiaries on the cheap. The news agency is the traditional vehicle for official leadership statements. Neither of these shows is an interview show as such, merely a vehicle for their star presenters.

30 Vehicle Boccaccio describes his story as a convenient vehicle for his own experiences in love. An advertisement is not simply a vehicle for its message.

31 Gear I'm tired, my brain's in neutral. This allows the practitioner to concentrate and work on areas that need particular attention, while holding stronger areas in neutral. The publicity machine was in top gear again yesterday as Madonna spent a day in Britain giving interviews to drum up interest in her new book. From that moment on his career went into top gear. It was a classic tennis match. Edberg won the first two sets, Becker stepped up a gear and won the next two, then led 3-1 in the final set. Pressure from the media was clearly going to step up a gear now. As she approaches her fortieth birthday, the Princess has moved up a gear in the pace of her life.

32 Brake The organization is keeping the brake on pay rises. Population growth is also still cited by FAO experts as a major brake to food self-sufficiency. They have been trying to fight inflation through high interest rates which are designed to put a brake on economic growth. It's up to the main arms suppliers, the major industrial nations themselves, to put the brakes on the arms race.

33 To steer Two out of three women at the prestigious Oxford University Medical School consider surgery as a career. But consultant Jane Clarks says 80% of them are steered away from the profession by senior staff. In the film he keeps her from harm and steers her into accepting life without him. I steered the conversation so that we were deep in chat when we pulled up outside my door, making it seen the most natural thing in the world to ask her in for a drink. They should have steered away from alcohol which just dehydrates you further. They decided that money should go to established orchestras, opera housed and theatres, steering away from the risk of new and untried work.

34 To steer Their international relations had previously steered a careful path between the competing interests of the two superpowers and their allies. Now promoters are steering clear of rock acts. They are wary of paying out huge sums to the stars, and risking all on the shows being a success. The singer has steered clear of drugs and alcohol for the past eighteen months. Jonathan and I had steered clear of each other for a couple of days.

35 Addition Сравнение жизни человека с транспортным средством вполне объяснимо. Человек может " переключать скорости ", включать высшую или нейтральную передачу, двигаться по инерции, тормозить и выбирать направление движения.

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