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Soldiers digging trenches during the First World War (1914–18).

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Presentation on theme: "Soldiers digging trenches during the First World War (1914–18)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soldiers digging trenches during the First World War (1914–18).
The Drums of War ( ) Performer - Culture & Literature Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella, Margaret Layton © 2013

2 1. The Edwardian Age When Queen Victoria died, the royal house took the Germanic surname of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Victoria’s son Edward reigned until 1910 as Edward VII. His greatest achievement was in foreign policy. The Entente Cordiale signed with France in 1904. Edward II. Performer – Culture & Literature

3 1. The Edwardian Age The Liberals won the general elections in 1906.
They introduced reforms to help three groups of people: 1906: Free school meals. 1907: Free school medical inspections. Children from poor families 1908: The Children’s Charter gave children some legal protection. It restricted the sale of alcohol and cigarettes. Performer – Culture & Literature

4 1. The Edwardian Age 1908: The Old-Age Pensions Act, which
introduced pensions for people over 70. 2. Old people 1911: The National Insurance Act, which gave people the right to free medical treatment and unemployment pay (the dole). 3. Workers Performer – Culture & Literature

5 1. The Edwardian Age 1910–14: A series of strikes was called because of high prices and low wages. They were remarkable for the number of men involved and for the violence which often accompanied them. Soldiers parade to intimidate workers, Liverpool 1911. Performer – Culture & Literature

6 2. The Suffragettes At the beginning of the 20th century only men were allowed to vote. A few educated ladies had been arguing in favour of voting rights for women since the 1860s. In 1903 Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughter Christabel founded the WSPU (Women’s Social and Political Union). The Suffragettes, as they were called, protested that women should be able to vote. WSPU leaders Annie Kenney (left) and Christabel Pankhurst. Performer – Culture & Literature

7 2. The Suffragettes The WSPU began to break the law to gain publicity and support. They began a campaign of vandalism: they chained themselves to railings outside Downing Street and Buckingham Palace; they made arson attacks on post boxes, churches and railway stations. A drawing from the WSPU newspaper in 1909 Performer – Culture & Literature

8 2. The Suffragettes The Government dealt with
the protests harshly and sent many Suffragettes to prison. In prison some women went on hunger strike to draw attention to their campaign. Prison authorities began force-feeding them. A drawing from the WSPU newspaper in 1909 Performer – Culture & Literature

9 3. World War I: general information
Britain declared war on Germany on 4th August 1914. The war ended on 11th November 1918. Almost 8,000,000 people died. Almost 22,000 were wounded. The war was known as ‘the war to end all wars’. Performer – Culture & Literature

10 3. World War I: outbreak of the war
The domino effect First Austria declared war on Serbia. Then Russia declared war on Austria. Next Germany joined with Austria. Archduke Ferdinand on the day of assassination. Finally France and Britain declared war on Austria and Germany. Performer – Culture & Literature

11 3. World War I: conducting the war
The Germans attacked France through Belgium. The French counter-attacked but were pushed back. The Russian’s rapid mobilisation surprised the Germans, who were forced to move some troops to the Eastern front. Stagnation and trench warfare in the West. Performer – Culture & Literature

12 3. World War I: trench warfare
Technology superior to tactics Machine guns vs a human charge New technology = poison gas, airplanes Very high death rates Battle of the Somme = 600,000 Allies and 500,000 Germans died for 125 miles of land Battle of Verdun = 700,000 killed on both sides with no gain in territory Performer – Culture & Literature

13 3. World War I: wider involvement
Soldiers from the British Empire from Canada, Australia and New Zealand volunteered. War at sea initiated US involvement Americans initially supplied both the Allies and the Central Powers A blockade brought the sinking of US ships Germans killed 1,000 Americans Americans entered the war on the side of the Allies in April 1917 Performer – Culture & Literature

14 3. World War I Performer – Culture & Literature

15 3. World War I: the end of war
Versailles Peace Treaty signed by British Prime Minister Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau of France, American President Woodrow Wilson and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy. Woodrow Wilson League of Nations, an organisation in which the representatives of the world’s nations would try to discuss and settle their differences without resorting to war. Allied leaders at Versailles. Performer – Culture & Literature

16 3. World War I: in English painting
The most individual and expressive of the artists who recorded the battlefields of World War I Paul Nash His first-hand experience gave his work immediacy and brutal honesty. It took a message from the trenches to the firesides back at home. THE MENIN ROAD, 1919, oil on canvas, Imperial War Museum, London.. Performer – Culture & Literature

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