Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Theme 1 ADOLESCENCE: NATURE AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE."— Presentation transcript:


2 INDEX  Adolescence and culture  Theories about adolescence: Hall, Freud, Blos, Havighurst, Mead, Benedict, Coleman  Physical changes and their psychological consequences  Adolescence in XXIth century

3 ¿Is adolescence an universal and natural process or, instead, is a cultural construction?  Adolescence in Western countries  Rites of passage  Puberty and adolescence

4 Adolescence A time of storm & stress A time of family and social conflict TOPICS “ I would there were no age between ten and three-and- twenty, or that youth would sleep out the rest; for there is nothing in the between but getting wenches with child, wronging the ancientry, stealing, fighting...” Shakespeare (A Winter’s Tale)

5 La juventud actual ama el lujo, es maliciosa, es malcriada, se burla de la autoridad y no tiene ningún respeto por los mayores. Nuestros muchachos de hoy son unos tiranos, que no se levantan cuando un anciano entra a alguna parte, que responden con altanería a sus padres y se complacen en ser gentes de mala fe..." a)Angel Acebesc) Federico Jiménez Losantos b)Juan Pablo IId) Sócrates SOCRATES, SIGLO IV A.C

6 ¿What is adolescence? A time of Storm and stress ¿ ? A normal developmental stage

7 Adolescence It is not necessarily a conflict or break time A period of important changes (physical, cognitive, emotional, social) Problems in 3 areas: family conflict, emotional instability and risk behaviors The reality

8 THEORIES ON ADOLESCENCE The literary movement Strum und Drang (Storm and Stress) Johan Wolfang von Goethe (1749 –1832) Emotion against racionalism, free expression of feelings, passión,individualism, idealism, melancholy, suffering...

9 THEORIES ON ADOLESCENCE Stanley Hall (1844-1924) *Influenced by Darwin and by Haeckel’s theory of Recapitulation *Adolescence as a time of stress and turmoil * Permissivity in the education of adolescents

10 Theories on adolescence The psychoanalytic approach Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Anna Freud (1895-1982) Ambivalence & unpredictability Aceptation of impulses Rejection impulses Love his/her parents Hate his/her parents Dependence Rebellion Search for identity Imitation of others Enthusiasm Apathy Generosity & Idealism Selfishness Ego Defense Mechanisms Asceticism and Intellectualization Ascetismo e Intelectualización

11 Theories on adolescence The psychoanalytic approach Peter Blos (1904 - 1997) Second Individuation Process Affective separation from parents Regressive Behaviors: Celebrity idolatry Emtional attachment to close friend Emotional instability N onconformity and rebellion

12 Theories on adolescence The psychoanalytic approach Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994) Eight life-span stages in ego development 5ª stage: Identity Achievement Adolescence as a main stage in personality development Enphasis on cultural factors

13 Theories on adolescence The psychoanalytic approach Margaret Mead (1901 – 1978) Research on Adolescence in Samoa Adolescence as a normal stage free of turmoil Derek Freeman criticism

14 Theories on adolescence Robert Havighurst Developmental Tasks New needs Social demands and Expectancies Physical changes Success or Failiure Maturuty or Inmaturity 1. Achieving new and mature relations with age mates of both sexes 2. Achieving masculine or feminine social role 3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectivel; 4. Achieving emotional independence from parents and other adults 5. Achieving economic independence and selecting and preparing for job 5. Preparing for marriage and family life 6. Developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for civic competence 7. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior; and 8. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior. Eight Developmental Tasks

15 Theories on Adolescence John C. Coleman & Focal Theory Review of empirical research on adolescence Criticism of storm & stress conception His research on adolescence and his focal theory

16 HORMONES AND PUBERTY Hypothalamus Produces hormones that send signals to Hypophysis Hypophys Gonads (ovaries and testes Pubertal Development Produces gonadotropins hormones GONADARCHE Produce sex hormones (testosterone, estrogens andógenos y progesterona) ADENARCHE

17 Hormonal Influences TestosteroneSexual desire Irritability and aggressive behavior/ Dominance EstrogensEmotional Instability Depressive Symptoms ProgesteroneCreates emotional bonds Physical Changes, changes in pattern of sleep

18 Pubertal changes ESTATUS PUBERAL

19 Physical Changes and psychological consequences Difficulty accepting a new body image Gender differences MENSTRUATION RISKS Ignorance & surprise Prejudice and symbolism of blood Discomfort and pain Related symptoms: irritability and emotional instability

20 PUBERTAL TIMING Early or late pubertal changes Influenced by factors such as: Body fat Alimentation, physical activity & sport Family stress Presence of non biologically related father or relative

21 PUBERTAL TIMING AND ADOLESCENT ADJUSTMENT Early puberty Better for boys (leadership, self- esteem) than girls (emotional and behavioral maladjustment, stress) Late Puberty More problematic for boys - Personal-accentuation hypothesis -In the long-term consequences are different

22 ¿Cuáles son las condiciones socio-culturales en las que transcurre la adolescencia actual? ¿Cómo afectarán a nuestros adolescentes?

23 1.Mayor presencia de los medios de comunicación que contribuyen a crear representaciones sociales e influyen sobre hábitos IMAGEN NEGATIVA PREJUICIOS Y RECHAZO

24 Contenidos de las noticias en prensa sobre jóvenes y adolescentes (El País-ABC)

25 2. Inicio más precoz y final más tardío de la adolescencia


27 4 Cambios demográficos Menos adolescentes Menos competitividad Mayor disponibilidad de recursos Mayor disponibilidad de recursos


Similar presentations

Ads by Google