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Chapter 3 Socialization. Society Makes Us Human Feral Children Isolated Children Institutionalized Children Deprived Animals © 2013 Pearson Education,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Socialization. Society Makes Us Human Feral Children Isolated Children Institutionalized Children Deprived Animals © 2013 Pearson Education,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Socialization

2 Society Makes Us Human Feral Children Isolated Children Institutionalized Children Deprived Animals © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Socialization into the Self and Mind Cooley and the Looking Glass Self –Imitation, Play, Team Games Mead and Role Taking –Imitation –Play –Team Games © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Cooley: Looking-Glass Self █ View of ourselves comes from contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive us Looking-glass self: The self is product of social interactions with other people Module 14

5 Mead: Stages of the Self █ Preparatory Stage: Children imitate people around them –As they grow older, children become more adept at using symbols Module 14

6 Mead: Stages of the Self █ Play Stage: Children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role taking occurs –Role taking: Process of mentally assuming perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint Module 14

7 Mead: Stages of the Self █ Game Stage: Children of about 8 or 9 consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously Module 14 -Mead used the game of baseball as an example of this stage

8 Mead: Stages of the Self █ Generalized others: Children of about 10 begin to take the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole into account.

9 Mead and Role-taking The self is divided into “I” and “Me”: “I” represents the unique traits of each person. “Me” is composed of the demands of others and the awareness of those demands. “I” develops first. “Me” is formed during first three stages of self development.

10 Mead: Theory of the Self █ Self begins as privileged, central position in a person’s world █ As the person matures, the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern about reactions of others Significant others: Individuals most important in the development of the self Module 14

11 Goffman: Presentation of the Self █ Impression management: Individual learns to slant presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences –Also known as dramaturgical approach Face-work: Need to maintain proper image of self to continue social interaction Module 14

12 Psychological Approaches to the Self █ Sigmund Freud –Self is a social product –Natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraints –Personality influenced by others (especially one’s parents) –Self has components that work in opposition to each other Art to come Module 14

13 Sigmund Freud ( ) Human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of personality: –Id: Present at birth; Pleasure principle –Ego: Develops over the first few years; Reality principle –Superego: Develops in a preschool child; Morality principle

14 Sigmund Freud ( )  Personality Development  To the id, the world is a jumble of physical sensations that bring pleasure or pain  As the superego develops, moral concepts of right and wrong are learned  Id and superego remain in conflict  Managed by the ego in a well-adjusted person

15 Psychological Approaches to the Self █ Piaget –Emphasized stages that humans progress through as the self develops –Cognitive theory of development: four stages in development of children’s thought processes Social interaction key to development Module 14

16 Jean Piaget ( ) Cognitive Development Jean Piaget used five key concepts to explain how cognitive development occurs: –Schema –Assimilation –Accommodation –Equilibrium –Equilibration

17 Socialization into the Self and Mind Piaget and the Development of Reasoning –The sensorimotor stage –The preoperational stage –The concrete operational stage –The formal operational stage Global Aspects of the Self and Reasoning © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 1.Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) - children understand the world through sensory contact and immediate action. 2.Preoperational stage (age 2 to 7) - children begin to use words as symbols and form mental images.

19 Conservation and Reversibility Problems

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21 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 3.Concrete operational stage (7 to 11) - children think in terms of tangible objects and events. 4.Formal operational stage (12 and up) - adolescents begin to think about the future and evaluate different courses of action.

22 The Life Course █ Rites of Passage: Means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status █ Life Course Approach: Looking closely at social factors that influence people throughout their lives Most difficult socialization challenges occur in later years Module 14

23 Socialization into Emotions Global Emotions Following “Feeling Rules” What We Feel Research Needed Society Within Us: The Self and Emotions as Social Control © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Society Within Us The Self and Emotions as Social Control Are We Free? Expectations of Family and Friends Social Mirror © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Socialization into Gender Learning the Gender Map Gender Messages in the Family Gender Messages from Peers Gender Messages in the Mass Media –Advertising –Movies and Television; Video Games –Anime © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Agents of Socialization The Family –Social Class and Type of Work The Neighborhood Religion Day Care The School and Peer Groups The Workplace © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Socialization Through Life Childhood - Birth to ~12 yrs Adolescence - 13 to 17 yrs Transitional Adulthood - 18 to 29 yrs The Middle Years - 30 to 65 yrs –Early Middle Years - 30 to 49 yrs –Later Middle Years - 50 to 65 yrs © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Transitional Adulthood: A New Stage in the Life Course Who has completed the transition?

29 Socialization Through Life The Older Years (about age 65 on) –The Transitional Older Years –The Later Older Years Sociological Significance of Life Course –Does Not Merely Represent Biology –Social Factors Influence Life Course –Social Location Very Significant © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 Are We Prisoners of Socialization? Sociologists Do Not Think So –We have a self Individual behavior is hard to predict Individuals Are Actively Involved in the Construction of the Self © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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