4Cooley: Looking-Glass Self Module 14Cooley: Looking-Glass SelfView of ourselves comes from contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive usLooking-glass self: The self is product of social interactions with other people
5Mead: Stages of the Self Module 14Mead: Stages of the SelfPreparatory Stage: Children imitate people around themAs they grow older, children become more adept at using symbols
6Mead: Stages of the Self Module 14Mead: Stages of the SelfPlay Stage: Children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role taking occursRole taking: Process of mentally assuming perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
7Mead: Stages of the Self Module 14Mead: Stages of the SelfGame Stage: Children of about 8 or 9 consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously-Mead used the game of baseball as an example of this stage
8Mead: Stages of the Self Generalized others: Children of about 10 begin to take the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole into account.
9Mead and Role-taking The self is divided into “I” and “Me”: “I” represents the unique traits of each person.“Me” is composed of the demands of others and the awareness of those demands.“I” develops first. “Me” is formed during first three stages of self development.
10Mead: Theory of the Self Module 14Mead: Theory of the SelfSelf begins as privileged, central position in a person’s worldAs the person matures, the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern about reactions of othersSignificant others: Individuals most important in the development of the self
11Goffman: Presentation of the Self Module 14Goffman: Presentation of the SelfImpression management: Individual learns to slant presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiencesAlso known as dramaturgical approachFace-work: Need to maintain proper image of self to continue social interaction
12Psychological Approaches to the Self Module 14Psychological Approaches to the SelfSigmund FreudSelf is a social productNatural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraintsPersonality influenced by others (especially one’s parents)Self has components that work in opposition to each otherArt to come
13Sigmund Freud ( )Human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of personality:Id: Present at birth; Pleasure principleEgo: Develops over the first few years; Reality principleSuperego: Develops in a preschool child; Morality principle
14Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Personality Development To the id, the world is a jumble of physical sensations that bring pleasure or painAs the superego develops, moral concepts of right and wrong are learnedId and superego remain in conflictManaged by the ego in a well-adjusted person
15Psychological Approaches to the Self Module 14Psychological Approaches to the SelfPiagetEmphasized stages that humans progress through as the self developsCognitive theory of development: four stages in development of children’s thought processesSocial interaction key to development
16Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive Development Jean Piaget used five key concepts to explain how cognitive development occurs:SchemaAssimilationAccommodationEquilibriumEquilibration
18Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) - children understand the world through sensory contact and immediate action.Preoperational stage (age 2 to 7) - children begin to use words as symbols and form mental images.
21Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Concrete operational stage (7 to 11) - children think in terms of tangible objects and events.Formal operational stage (12 and up) - adolescents begin to think about the future and evaluate different courses of action.
22Most difficult socialization challenges occur in later years Module 14The Life CourseRites of Passage: Means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s statusLife Course Approach: Looking closely at social factors that influence people throughout their livesMost difficult socialization challenges occur in later years22