Cooley: Looking-Glass Self █ View of ourselves comes from contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive us Looking-glass self: The self is product of social interactions with other people Module 14
Mead: Stages of the Self █ Preparatory Stage: Children imitate people around them –As they grow older, children become more adept at using symbols Module 14
Mead: Stages of the Self █ Play Stage: Children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role taking occurs –Role taking: Process of mentally assuming perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint Module 14
Mead: Stages of the Self █ Game Stage: Children of about 8 or 9 consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously Module 14 -Mead used the game of baseball as an example of this stage
Mead: Stages of the Self █ Generalized others: Children of about 10 begin to take the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole into account.
Mead and Role-taking The self is divided into “I” and “Me”: “I” represents the unique traits of each person. “Me” is composed of the demands of others and the awareness of those demands. “I” develops first. “Me” is formed during first three stages of self development.
Mead: Theory of the Self █ Self begins as privileged, central position in a person’s world █ As the person matures, the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern about reactions of others Significant others: Individuals most important in the development of the self Module 14
Goffman: Presentation of the Self █ Impression management: Individual learns to slant presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences –Also known as dramaturgical approach Face-work: Need to maintain proper image of self to continue social interaction Module 14
Psychological Approaches to the Self █ Sigmund Freud –Self is a social product –Natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraints –Personality influenced by others (especially one’s parents) –Self has components that work in opposition to each other Art to come Module 14
Sigmund Freud ( ) Human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of personality: –Id: Present at birth; Pleasure principle –Ego: Develops over the first few years; Reality principle –Superego: Develops in a preschool child; Morality principle
Sigmund Freud ( ) Personality Development To the id, the world is a jumble of physical sensations that bring pleasure or pain As the superego develops, moral concepts of right and wrong are learned Id and superego remain in conflict Managed by the ego in a well-adjusted person
Psychological Approaches to the Self █ Piaget –Emphasized stages that humans progress through as the self develops –Cognitive theory of development: four stages in development of children’s thought processes Social interaction key to development Module 14
Jean Piaget ( ) Cognitive Development Jean Piaget used five key concepts to explain how cognitive development occurs: –Schema –Assimilation –Accommodation –Equilibrium –Equilibration
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 1.Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) - children understand the world through sensory contact and immediate action. 2.Preoperational stage (age 2 to 7) - children begin to use words as symbols and form mental images.
Conservation and Reversibility Problems
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 3.Concrete operational stage (7 to 11) - children think in terms of tangible objects and events. 4.Formal operational stage (12 and up) - adolescents begin to think about the future and evaluate different courses of action.
The Life Course █ Rites of Passage: Means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status █ Life Course Approach: Looking closely at social factors that influence people throughout their lives Most difficult socialization challenges occur in later years Module 14