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Electoral Process Nominating. nominating Self-announcement –Usually write-in candidates –Thus far 4 prominent presidential contenders –George Wallace,

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Presentation on theme: "Electoral Process Nominating. nominating Self-announcement –Usually write-in candidates –Thus far 4 prominent presidential contenders –George Wallace,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electoral Process Nominating

2 nominating Self-announcement –Usually write-in candidates –Thus far 4 prominent presidential contenders –George Wallace, Eugene McCarthy, John Anderson & Ross Perot Caucus –Group of people who meet to select candidates to support upcoming election –Later disappated

3 Convention –Replaced caucus –Nominates a candidate Direct primary –Held within a party to pick candidate –2 forms –Closed primary –Only party members can vote –Open primary –Any voter can vote

4 –Nonpartisan primary –Candidates not identified by party labels –Elected school and municipal offices –Contender who wins majority runs unopposed in general election –Presidential primary –Offshoot of direct primary –Not nominating device, but 1 part of process for choosing candidate –Possibly 2 things depending on state –Voters elect some or all of state party delegates to party national convention; or/and –Preference election –Voters choose among contenders for party’s nomination

5 Elections

6 Administration of Elections Federal control –Most election law is “state” not “federal” law –Federal election laws do exist –Congress can fix: –Times –Places –Manner of holding elections of members of congress –Congress can set: –Time for choosing presidential electors –Set date for casting electoral votes –Regulate other aspects of presidential election process

7 –Congress set date for congressional elections –1 st Tuesday following 1 st Monday in November of every even numbered year –Same date every 4 th year for presidential election –Congress requires use of secret ballots and use of voting machines in federal elections –Protects right to vote –Prohibits various corrupt practices –Regulates financing of campaigns for federal office –Help America Vote Act of 2002 –Due to ballot and voter registration problems in several states during presidential election of 2000 –Non-computerized voting machines replace by 2006 –Upgrade administration of elections (training of all) – centralize and computerize voter registration systems –Provide for provisional voting –If eligibility of voter challenged, later found valid, vote then counts

8 Election day –Most states same date set for national elections in November of every even- numbered year –Reason –“Tuesday alter the 1 st Monday” prevents election day from falling on Sundays –Separation of church and state –1 st day of mon –Often payday could be subject to campaign pressures Early voting –Absentee voting –Voting w/out going to polling place on election day Coattail effect –Strong candidate helps attract votes to other candidates on party’s ticket –Most apparent in presidential elections

9 Precincts & Polling Places precinct –Voting district –Smallest geographic units –Restricted to an area of 500 – 1,000 qualified voters –Polling place –Place where voters who live in a precinct vote

10 Casting the ballot Ballot –Device a voter registers a choice Australian ballot –4 major features –Printed a@ public expense –Lists names of all candidates –Given only at polls –Marked in secret –Not used any more, but a form of it used

11 Office-group ballot –Original form of Australian –Candidates grouped together under title of office –Candidates appear in a block also known as office-block Party-column ballot –Known as Indiana ballot –Candidates listed in column under party’s name –Professional politicians favor this ballot –Encourages straight-ticket voting Sample ballots –Available in most states before election –Cannot be cast, help voters prepare

12 bedsheet ballot –American ballot lengthy –Many candidates –Many offices –Due to it’s length known as bedsheet ballot –Longest ballots found @ local level –Believed rule should be: –Elect those who make public policy; appoint those who administer the policy

13 Automated voting –Voting done on electronic voting device –Thomas Edison patented 1 st voting machine in 1868 –1 st used in public election Locksport, NY in 1892 –Use to be lever operated – now computer Electronic vote counting –Known as electronic data processing (EDP) –Use to use punch cards –- difficult for computers to read –Used in FL election in 2000 –Most states now use either/or –Paper ballots counted by high-speed optical scanners; or –Touch-screen

14 Vote-by-mail elections –ballot received in mail and mail back to election officials –Usually confined to local level –Oregon only state to have all-mail primary and general election; including presidential in 2000 –Proponents felt increases voter turnout & reduces costs –Opponents felt threatens principle of secret ballot and fraud On-line voting –Voting via internet –1 st e-voting took place in TX –Astronaut David Wolf emailed from space station Mir –Proponents feel will increase voter turnout & reduce costs

15 –Opponents feel hackers, viruses, fraudulent vote counts, violations of secrecy, etc. –Also feels undermines basic American principles of equality – not all have computers

16 QUIZ QUESTIONS 1.What is the purpose of absentee voting? (2 pts) 2.What factor determines location of a voter’s polling place? (2 pts) 3.What are the advantages and disadvantages of voting by mail and voting online? (8 pts) 4.Do you support either of these voting methods? Explain your answer. (4 pts) Use complete sentences and proper grammar to answer your questions and explain any answers BONUS: Who patented the 1 st voting machine?

17 Money & Elections

18 Campaign Spending $ needed to run campaigns Getting/spending $ can corrupt political process Presidential elections largest share campaign $ Congressional campaign spending increases (senate & house) Areas for campaign spending –Radio & TV spots, professional campaign managers & consultants, newspaper advertsiments, pamphlets, buttons, posters, bumper stickers, office rent, polls, data processing, mass mailings, web sites, travel, etc.

19 Total Campaign Spending: 1960 - 2004 Year Est. Spending (millions) Voter Turnout (millions) Spending/ Voter 196017568.8$2.54 196420070.6$2.83 196830073.2$4.10 197242577.7$5.47 197654081.6$6.6 19801.286.6$13.87 19841.892.7$19.42 19882.791.6$29.48 19923.2104.4$30.68 19964.096.5$41.45 20005.1105.4$48.39 20046.0120.2$49.92

20 Sources of Funding Private contributions –Major source –Small contributors ($5, $10, etc.) –Wealthy individuals & families (large $) –Fat cats –Candidates –Their families, incumbents, those who hold an office & want to keep it –Ross Perot – spent $65 million of own $ in 1992 –Nonparty groups –Political action committees (PACs) –Temporary organizations –Formed for immediate purposes of the campaign

21 Public sources –Subsidies (grants) from federal & state treasuries

22 Federal Election Commission (FEC) Administers federal laws on campaign finances Laws they enforce: –Timely disclosure of finance info –Place limits on contributions –Place limits on expenditures –Provide public funding for several parts o presidential election process PAC contributions –Corporations & labor unions cannot contribute –Registered w/FEC –Ex: AFL-CIO, AMPAC (Am Medical Political Action Committee, etc.)

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