2 Election ProcessIn the United States, the election process occurs in two steps:1. Nomination, in which the field of candidates is narrowed2. General election, the regularly scheduled election where voters make the final choice of officeholder
4 Four Ways to Nominate1. Self-Announcement – A person who wants to run for office announces their candidacy (usually found in small towns/rural areas)
5 Four Ways to Nominate1. The Caucus – Originally a private meeting of local bigwigs, the caucus as a nominating device fell out of favor in the 1820s.
6 Four Ways to NominateThe Convention – Considered more democratic than the caucus, convention delegates were selected to represent the people’s wishes. Party bosses soon found ways to manipulate the system, however, and the convention system was on its way out by the early 1900s.
7 Four Ways to Nominate Direct Primary Closed Primary – Only registered party members may voteOpen Primary – Any qualified voter may take part
8 Getting ElectedThe road to the White House consists of 2 separate racesPrimary elections and caucuses leading to party nominationThe general electionEach requires a different strategy
9 Getting ElectedPrimaries – appeal to party activists and the more ideologically motivated primary voters in key statesGeneral election – appeal to the less partisan, more ideologically moderate general election voters
11 The Administration of Elections Elections are primarily regulated by State law, but there are some overreaching federal regulations.
12 The Administration of Elections CongressCongress has the power to set the time, place, and manner of congressional and presidential elections.Congress has chosen the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of every even-numbered year for congressional elections, with the presidential election being held the same day every fourth year.
13 The Administration of Elections StatesStates determine the details of the election of thousands of State and local officials.Most States provide for absentee voting, for voters who are unable to get to their regular polling places on election day. Most States have started to allow voting a few days before election day to increase voter participation.
14 Precincts and Polling Places A precinct is a voting districtA polling place is where the people who live in a precinct go to vote
15 Casting the Ballot Voting was initially done orally In the late 1800s, ballot reforms cleaned up ballot fraud by supplying standardized, accurate ballots and mandating that voting be secret
17 Campaign Spending It takes money to be elected! Average winner of the Senate spent $8 Million in 2000Average winner of the House spent $900,000 in 2000Over $600 Million was spent in the Presidential race of 2000
19 Sources of Funding Small contributors Wealthy supporters Candidates Temporary fund-raising organizationsNonparty groups such as PACs (Political Action Committees)Government subsidies
20 Federal Election Commission (FEC) Administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance:the timely disclosure of campaign finance informationlimits on campaign contributionslimits on campaign expendituresprovisions for public funding of presidential campaigns
21 Political Action Committees (PAC) Political Arms of special–interest groupsBusiness, labor, professional, cause, and other organizations
22 Loopholes in the LawSoft money — money given to State and local party organizations for “party-building activities” that is filtered to presidential or congressional campaigns. $500 million was given to campaigns in this way in 2000.Independent campaign spending — a person unrelated and unconnected to a candidate or party can spend as much money as they want to benefit or work against candidates.Issue ads — take a stand on certain issues in order to criticize or support a certain candidate without actually mentioning that person’s name.
23 Get out a sheet of paper and write your name at the top!!! QUIZGet out a sheet of paper and write your name at the top!!!
24 1. What are the 2 steps of the election process in the United States? 2. What are the 4 ways to nominate candidates?3. Who has the power to set the time, place, and manner of elections?4. What does the Federal Election Commission do?5. What are Political Action Committees?