Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 MH-23: Age of Interventions Power Projection. 2 Projecting Power and Maintaining Peace Strategic Overview By 1980s => Major military powers dominated.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 MH-23: Age of Interventions Power Projection. 2 Projecting Power and Maintaining Peace Strategic Overview By 1980s => Major military powers dominated."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MH-23: Age of Interventions Power Projection

2 2 Projecting Power and Maintaining Peace Strategic Overview By 1980s => Major military powers dominated –Able to project military power over great distances –Airlift: able to rapidly deploy SOF & light infantry –Sustained sealift to deploy USMC & Navy air at sea Loiter off potential trouble spots & areas of crises R&D produced many technological advances & refinements in weapons: –Precision guided munitions=> smart bombs got better –Stealth bomber & attack aircraft: F111 & F117, even B-52G with precision guided munitions capability Later unmanned remote controlled A/C for reconnaissance & attack –Electronic & C4I (later linked with computers for battle array) –Computer planning & Battle management

3 3 Power Projection & Battle Management Result: Power projection & application of military force unmatched: –Precise & effective military power significantly increased: Enabled rapid deployment & employment of ready force In some cases, within 4 hours alert to “wheels up” Non-stop air-refueled deployments half way around world Example: Fort Bragg (Pope) to Guam (non stop) Battle planning & management simply unmatched: –Flexible & adaptive & accomplished on the way –Numerous contingency options made (JSOC’s Execution check list)

4 4 Post-Cold War Era When Cold War (CW) ended: –Intervention was up, while… –Direct superpower confrontation was down NTL: as 9/11 shows=> –World still very dangerous place: –Nationalistic, religious, ethnic conflict & terror rising –Now => all US citizens are the target => Even here on American soil!

5 5 Age of Intervention Battles The Falklands Britain’s deployment to the Falklands demonstrated it power projection capability –With significant US logistic and Intel support –British “retrieval” Task Force (TF) included: two CVs (Harriers & Helos), a landing force of 3 rd Commandos (Marines & Paras), 5 th Infantry Brigade (Socts Guards, Welsh, & 7 th Gurkha), SBS & 22 nd SAS, & Royal Artillery –Argentine garrison reinforced w/2 Brigades Map shows impressive deployment challenge overcome by the British –Using both sea and air transportation –Total distance: 12,000 KM 6000 KM to Ascension Island 6000 KM to Falklands & South Georgia

6 6 Falklands- Employment & Combat Movements Maritime Exclusion Zone announced 12Apr (2 SSNs) British forces attacked IAW movements illustrated below –South Georgia was captured by Royal Marines & SBS on 24-5 April, 1982

7 7 Operation Corporate 2 May: General Belgrano torpedoed by SSN Conqueror –Argentine Navy withdraw from War 4 May: Argentine AF sunk HMS Sheffield w/Exocet missile –Later bombed Brit landing force off San Carlos (HMS Ardent, Antelope, & Coventry & Atlantic Conveyor sunk) Sinking provoked London & it ordered 45 Commando & 3 Para to march east ASAP to invest Stanley – Meanwhile 2 Para took Goose Green in vicious fight (map) 5 th Brigade landed at San Carlos on 25 May –The two Guards Battalions deployed to east coast by sea to Bluff Cove –11-14 June Brits take all tactical objectives & Argentine defense falls –BG Menendez surrendered at Stanley Results: Brits recovered Falklands at cost of 255 KIA & several ships –Restored feeling of Patriotism –Thatcher government would have fallen if expedition failed Argentines lost 700 –(368 in Belgano) –Navy & Army outclassed –Junta fell soon afterwards

8 8 Urgent Fury- Deployment- Oct 1983 Following 2 nd violent coup, Caribbean Island Grenada fell into chaos –Gov-General Paul Scoon secretly asked OECS to restore order –OECS in turn requested assistance from US

9 9 US Motives Hard line communist faction’s take over had strategic implications for US –Salines airstrip modernization (10K’) posed threat to vital Caribbean sea lanes & the Panama Canal Salines could provide potential staging for Cuban & Soviet flights to Africa & Nicaragua –Cubans were acting as Soviet proxies in Africa & Nicaragua at the time –Also US concern for safety of 1000 American medical students Decision taken to intervene: –Restore order & eliminate Communists threat completely

10 10 Operation Urgent Fury- Forces Operation hastily planned & put together –Pre-Goldwater-Nichols reforms –JCS Service Chiefs & OPSDEPs had major influence over Ops –Every service also wanted piece of action (CJCS John Vessey said all forces needed due to short notice) Invasion force, commanded by C2F, included: –Independence CV Battle Group & LHA Guam (Phibron 4) –Amphibious Squadron 4 & 1500 USMC of 22 MAU –2 USA Ranger Battalions & 82 nd ABN Division –JSOTF (HQ C3, Delta, ST-6, TF-160)- (make debut) –Token OECS representation Island defenses included: –500+ Grenada troops & 2000+ Militia & 800 Cuban advisors

11 11 Operation Urgent Fury: Actions & Results Pre-assault landing by CCT & ST-6 squad failed –4 SEALs lost during night para drop into sea to SW (sudden squall) 25 Oct: H-hour objectives included: –Rangers & USMC take airfields in respective AOA Light resistance for USMC (Pearls Airfield) Heavy resistance in South AOA –(Rangers & JSOTF at Salines & St. Georges) –SEALs to capture or destroy Radio Free Grenada Also secure safety of Sir Paul Scoon (held in house arrest at his residence) –Rangers tasked to secure Salines Ensure safety of US citizens (students) By 28 Oct: Grenada firmly under US control, NTL: –Problems included: poor Intel, C3 interoperability, coordination –US: 18 KIA & 116 WIA –Cuban: 25 KIA & 59 WIA; Grenada: 45 KIA/350 WIA

12 12 Blue Spoon (Just Cause): OOB Panama offered opportunity to test the Goldwater-Nichols military reforms (as a result of L/L from Just Cause) Opposing Forces: –US: 27K from all four services –Noriega & his PDF: 12,800 Guard, Police, & officials (4000 combat ready)

13 Concept of Operations Concept of Ops (“deliberate execution” scenario) –US forces in Panama (13K) & deployed from CONUS to conduct simultaneous attack on 36 planned & emerging targets in Panama (Pre-invasion recon was conducted by SOF during weeks prior) JSOTF to commence operation w/5 UW Task Forces (TF) just prior to H-Hour: –TF Green (Delta): rescue CIA agent held near Comandancia –TF Black (SOUTHCOM SOF): protect opposition leaders –TF Green & TF Blue (ST-6): rescue any hostages; locate & seize Noriega –TF White (ST-2 & ST-4): conduct maritime ops against Panama City, Balboa Harbor, & Colon Harbor (swimmer limpet attacks) ST-4 (3 platoons) also tasked to attack Noriega’s Jet at Paitilla Airfield –TF Red (Rangers): airborne assault on Rio Haito & Torrijos 13

14 14 Conventional Forces 3 of 4 Conventional TF would attack at H-Hour: –TF Bayonet (193d Infantry Brigade): seize comandancia & other PDF targets emerging in and around Panama City –TF Atlantic (7 th Infantry Division (L) & 82 nd ABN): seize sites in Canal Zone from Panama City to Colon –TF Semper Fi (USMC): secure land approaches to Bridge of Americas & Howard AFB At H+45 TF Pacific (bulk of 82 nd ABN): air drop on Torrijos-Tocumen airport & relieve Rangers –H+90: capture & destroy PDF strongholds at Tinajitas, Fort Cimarron, & Panama Viejo On D+2: 7 th Infantry (L) & 16 th MP Brigade to complete deployment & commence stability ops –D+3 through D+30: 7 th Infantry relieve all other combat units –MP & Civil Affairs commence restoration of order (Blind Logic)

15 15 Just Cause- Execution After 6 weeks of plan refinement & rehearsals, ops commenced just before 0100 on 20 Dec 1989 –For most part, conducted “as planned” (some time delays & friction) –By H+7 the PDF ceased to exist as an organized forced Noriega fled to Papal Nuncio, but later surrendered to US (serving 40 years in FL)

16 16 Iraqi Invasion- August 1990 At 0100, 2 Aug 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait to surprise of all- especially Arabs –Saddam ignored US & UN sanctions & declared Kuwait Iraq’s 13 th Province on 8 Aug –Commenced a build-up to 43 Divisions (545K) to defend his recent gains from attack President Bush (I) immediately ordered USS Eisenhower CVBG to Red Sea & USS Independence CVBG into Persian Gulf –Upon request from Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd, Bush ordered deployment of largest US force since Vietnam

17 17 Iraq I: Air Campaign 17 Jan, 1991 at 0234 L TF Normandy of UN coalition launched massive air campaign of 1736 A/C against Iraq –USA Apaches led by 2 MH-53Js Pave Lows fired Hellfire missiles at Iraqi radar to clear path for USAF strike force –Soon followed by F-117A Nighthawks & strikes on Baghdad Attack Iraqi C3 USN cruise missiles & Leadership targets Air strike was synchronized & massive (Based on L/L since 1973) –Incorporated technology advances Iraqi Air Defense included 300 fighters & extensive early warning system (KARI) –SA-2s, -3s, -8s, & Roland I/II SAMs By D+2 coalition air forces had shut down Iraqi power grids & its entire air defense –Soon Coalition air component turned its attention to Iraqi ground forces

18 18 Ground Campaign Coalition forces had 540K: 7 USA Divisions, 2 USMC Div, Brit Armor Div, French light armor, & equivalent of more than 4 Arab/Islamic divisions Iraqis had 43 Divisions (545K) in Kuwait with 4280 tanks, 3100 arty, 2800 APCs –Of 110K coalition sorties flown, 23,430 would be flown against Iraq’s ground forces At 0400 24 Feb (G-Day): the ground war commenced

19 19 The Left Hook Bulk of ground attack concentrated on Iraq’s RF –But USMC Amphibious force diverted 4-6 Iraqi divisions’ attention to Gulf Coast (Iraqi front) –SEAL element conducted beach demo raid to simulate pre-landing preparations just prior to coalition ground attack to the East While USMC & Arab forces attacked directly toward Kuwait, XVIII Corps (250 miles to west) attacked N-NE twd Euphrates to cut off Highway 8 –Also acted to screen VII Corps left flank & severed Iraqi LOC & escape route Following planned 12 hour delay, VII Corps broke through Iraqi defense lines –Both VII & XVIII ABN Corps turned East to cut off Republican Guards & Iraqi front line remnants –Movement resembled giant wheeling motion 25 Feb: 101 st ABN established blocking position –Then 101 st ABN & 24 th Infantry attacked Hwy 8 By 25 Feb USMC 1 st Exp. reached outskirts of city –President Bush called halt to war after 100 hours

20 20 Somalia By early 1992 civil war led to famine & an entire breakdown society in Somalia –Conditions there had killed 500K people & led to 1 million children being malnourished –TV broadcast these appalling conditions & US public opinion soon forced its Bush I Administration to act Heavily armed clans ruled as de facto gov officials –Demanded payment from humanitarian NGOs –Restricted distribution of vital food & water UN created UNOSOM 1 to provide aid & order –President Bush (I) ordered US military to assist –Phase I: Operation Provide Relief began 28K metric tons of relief supplies sent to Somalia NTL- the fighting & food shortages continued Phase II (9 Dec 92-4 May 93): UN sponsored limited military nation building (Op Restore Hope) –US took lead beginning w/amphibious landing of USMC Expeditionary force at Mogadishu –US forces gradually grew to 30 K with 10 th Mtn Div March 1993: UN took over Phase III of Restore Hope

21 21 Changing Objectives US continued to provide logistics –Assigned 10 th Mountain division to UN OPCON UN policing efforts angered local warlord Chief - Mohammed Farah Adid –His forces ambushed Pakistani UN troops They were in route to seize Adid’s radio station 24 KIA- bodies mutilated and displayed UN then set objective of capturing Adid & debilitating his organization –US (DOS) agreed to take lead to capture Adid –Task Force Ranger was established at Ft. Bragg –Began planning & exercising various scenarios Deploy to Mogadishu Airfield & set up FOB –3 Oct 93: after several successful missions capturing Adid’s Lts, but always just missing Adid –TFR acted on tip that Adid & his Lts were meeting

22 22 Concept of Operations TF Ranger (TFR) launched to find & capture them –The Plan was for Delta to fast rope from UH-60s to the street & also debark from MH-1s onto the target roof to snatch Adid & his Lts in meeting rooms below –Army Rangers would also fast rope from Blackhawks to their assigned “chalks” & blocking positions –Then a TFR convoy of heavy trucks & Humvees would rendezvous at the target & extract the prisoners & remaining Task Force & return to the FOB

23 23 Black Hawk Down Things were going as planned when CWO Wolcott reported to the net in calm voice that his Helo was hit and he was going down –He had been hit by a RPG & forced to crash land The mission now radically changed to search & rescue (and later recovery) –Locate & secure crash site now became 1 st priority Adid’s militia rushed to sound of the guns

24 24 Super Six Four Super Six Four commanded by Mike Durant now filled in for Wolcott’s downed Black Hawk –Soon after Durant’s Helo was also hit by an RPG and went down as well –Now two Black Hawks were down in two separate locations Two Delta snipers volunteered to go in and secure the 2 nd crash site –They would ask 3 times before getting permission from the JOC –It was a desperate move but the only chance to protect the downed crew Their names are now on growing list in a memorial displayed in Delta’s secret compound –Gary Gordon and Randall Shughart

25 25 For Conspicuous Gallantry…

26 26 Aftermath TF Ranger finally recovered the bodies of Wolcott & his crew –In a horrendous continuing running battle with Adid’s men through the night & the next day,* they finally reached the relative safety of the FOB –They continued to search for Durant & the bodies of his missing crew and those of the two Delta snipers General Garrison, the commander of TF Ranger, requested re- enforcements to finish the job –That request was set in motion until it reversed by the political leadership who had had enough of US involvement in UN “peace making” –US involvement ended on 4 Mar 1994 & all US troops were withdrawn

27 27 Bosnia- 1945-1995 1945-1991: Yugoslavia comprised 6 independent republics : –Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, & Macedonia With end of Cold War (1990) nationalism & ethnic distrust erupted –Formerly suppressed by Tito until his death in 1980 –Since then 3 bloody civil wars were fought Motives for Civil Wars: –Gain independence & expand borders at neighbor's expense –Fighting caused death & ethnic cleanings, rape, torture, & mass murder (genocide) 28Aug95: Serbs mortared Sarajevo (UN safe zone- 1 of 6) –Killed 38 & wounded 85=> broadcast via global TV images –Attack came in defiance of US warning to Serbs to stop attacks –UN & US credibility on the line=> both had had enough

28 28 US & NATO Response: Deliberate Force 30 Aug 1995 NATO unleashed Operation Deliberate Force –60 NATO aircraft flying from Italy and US CVs in Adriatic attack Serb army positions around Sarajevo –Continued attacks until Serbs agreed to meet at Dayton to negotiate peace terms US flew two thirds of 3515 total sorties during Deliberate Force –60% of targets struck with precision guided munitions –Forced Serbs to peace talks in Dayton –Dayton Accords completed Nov 1995 Dec 1995: US & Allies embarked on Op Joint Endeavor (peacekeeping) –Task Force Eagle comprised 20K US –Marked first NATO operational commitment in its history (+USSR)

29 29 Kosovo- 1987-1999 In 1987 Serbian President Milosevic conducted ethnic cleansing, against Albanian ethnic groups –1988: violence escalated between Serbs & Albanian majority in Kosovo 300K people were displaced as a result –Subsequently under international pressure Milosevic agreed to a cease fire 15 Jan 1999: –Milosevic ordered massacre of 45 ethnic Albanians –Serbs at Racak carried out these orders As disclosure of these massacres became known to world, US appealed to Milosevic to stop them –When he continued to ignore US appeals for cessation of violence against Kosovars, NATO responded forcefully

30 30 Operation Allied Force (24 Mar-10 Jun 1999) 24 Mach 1999: NATO launched air strikes against Serbia –US & NATO flew 38K sorties –Lost only 2 aircraft (recovered crew) US employed new generation of standoff, precision-guided munitions based on JDAM & Joint Stand Off Weapons –B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber made its combat debut by dropping GPS assisted JDAM on first night of Operation –38% of munitions dropped on Serbia were precision guided against Army, C3, industry & transportation targets in & around Serbia After 78 days of strikes, Serbs ceased attacks on ethnic Albanians & w/d army –Milosevic (now weakened) agreed to new elections –Sept 2000 he lost & was soon ousted from power –Arrested for war crimes (now on trial at the Haig)

31 31 Emerging Threats of the 21 st Century Last quarter of the 20 th century saw a new threat emerge –International terrorism (for many and varied motives) was especially troubling –US in particular became the international target of choice for terrorists After many attacks & various levels of destruction, the one on 9/11/2001 finally prompted a forceful US response

32 32 War in Afghanistan (American Style) Al Qaeda led by Bin Laden was identified as the force behind the 9/11 attack –The Taliban of Afghanistan its host –When the Taliban refused to turn over Bin Laden and eject al Qaeda, the US struck 7 Oct 2001: US & its Allies attacked –US SOF would play a key role in the mountains of Afghanistan (and still does)

33 33 Iraq II Whatever the political, military, or Intelligence rationale for Iraq War (II) –Removing Saddam Hussein from power was a prime objective US & Allied (UK) forces conducted a militarily successful campaign that ended in the occupation of Baghdad & fall of Hussein’s government on 9 April 2003, 21 days after the war’s start –SOF played an important role, especially in the North & West –Including the capture of Saddam & the location & death of his sons

34 34 The Hard Part The question still TBD: –Will the “Peace” also be won –Growing insurgency & escalating violence (IEDs, suicide bombings, & rising sectarian conflict) is having a debilitating impact on continued public support for the war Ultimately the political will of the American people, not the politicians, will determine whether or not we “stay the course” –It might even be argued that the insurgency was Saddam’s strategy for dealing with a superior & technically advanced US force all along –“Mission Accomplished” is still to be assessed by history

35 35 Cold War- Assessment Post WW2 period => known as “the Cold War” –Witnessed the major military states project military power globally Forces able to cover great distances in short amount of time –By sea or air transport Initial & lighter forces deployed mostly by air Remaining follow on forces & heavy equipment by sea –Throughout their forces were sustained with effective logistic support Examples: –Dominican Republic, Falklands, & Grenada –Objective: overwhelm less capable enemy force quickly –Before given chance to recover from surprise & initial shock

36 36 Complications Complications emerge NTL: (in many cases)=> –Due to friction- where the unexpected often arises During Deployment: –Required to deploy forces long distances on very short notice –(i.e. come as you are fight) => ready or not –Problems usually unfold as result (Urgent Fury) Inter-service C3 & interoperability problems: planning & coordination During Employment - immediately upon arrival => – Air/sea/ground forces had to jump right into combat –Immediate Tactical objective: defeat enemy swiftly (Just Cause) Challenges: –Accurate intelligence & effective logistic support –Rapid & effective coordination of combined arms –Concentrate overwhelming force quickly on all tactical objectives before enemy can react and defend

37 37 Post Cold War Interventions As Cold War ended => USSR was no longer superpower: –No firm bi-polar alliances to keep each side’s allies in check –Former Soviet clients & ethnic minorities no longer repressed –Result: regional & ethnic conflicts escalate & spread National/NATO/UN forces attempt to control global situation of growing unrest: –Regional conflict rise to surface (why? - no longer repressed) –(Nationalistic, religious, ethnic, regional tensions all rise) –New & violent– sometimes unexpected- conflict ensues –Examples: Iraq (PG War), India-Pakistan, Balkans, NK Implication: (IAW Text) => predicts: –Future violent conflicts more likely: –Brief, highly intensive conflicts with high casualties –(vice long protracted Vietnam War type conflicts)

38 38 Exceptions? Short intense wars certainly true during initial battles at start of intervention…but –What about current war on terror & global hunt for terrorists? –Or current insurgency growing in Iraq Other factors (IAW Text): –Increased strategic/operational & tactical mobility: => –Promotes maneuver warfare (vice static stalemate- true?) (Let’s hope so…but…) –But mostly true in battles fought in the desert or on the European plan But in the jungle or the city dealing with urban GW…?

39 39 Problems remain Gradual mission creep a serious potential problem: –(Somalia, Bosnia, Afghanistan, & especially in Iraq) –Also: US & UN relationship can be very controversial –UN C2 over US forces – not likely: (Reluctant UN OPCON & execution - Somalia) –Congressional concerns are another potential obstacle: US determined to ensure its political Sovereignty Sole command & control over US troops a must Limits: though initial military (battle) success in Afghanistan & Iraq I & II impressive –Prolonged urban insurgency in Iraq is most troubling

40 40 Lessons of History Must recognize limits of our past operational experience: –Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, ME conflict, & terrorist hunt: –Show limits of modern technology & advance weapons & technology against urban insurgency & in mountains of Afghanistan, as well as jungles of PI & But: as recently demonstrated => –Latest US munitions (JSSAM) are more precise & Less munitions needed to do more Also more flexible & capable means to deliver Intel & targeting may be more accurate in the future –(SOF FAC & coordination w/air strikes impressive) So... jury is still out on hunt for ME terrorists & homeland security & defense –Or a growing protracted war with Iraq… (& an Exit Strategy of “Iraqinization”) The American people & their representatives will ultimately decide the fate of its continued pursuit –But whatever political decisions US policy makers take, it will be left to individual warriors on the ground, in the air, and on & below the sea, to carry them out

41 The President of the United States in the name of The CongressThe Congress takes pride in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR posthumously to LIEUTENANT MICHAEL P. MURPHY UNITED STATES NAVY For service as set forth in the following CITATION: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life and above and beyond the call of duty as the leader of a special reconnaissance element with Naval Special Warfare task unit Afghanistan on 27 and 28 June 2005. While leading a mission to locate a high-level anti-coalition militia leader, Lieutenant Murphy demonstrated extraordinary heroism in the face of grave danger in the vicinity of Asadabad, Konar Province, Afghanistan. On 28 June 2005, operating in an extremely rugged enemy-controlled area, Lieutenant Murphy's team was discovered by anti-coalition militia sympathizers, who revealed their position to Taliban fighters. As a result, between 30 and 40 enemy fighters besieged his four member team. Demonstrating exceptional resolve, Lieutenant Murphy valiantly led his men in engaging the large enemy force. The ensuing fierce firefight resulted in numerous enemy casualties, as well as the wounding of all four members of the team. Ignoring his own wounds and demonstrating exceptional composure, Lieutenant Murphy continued to lead and encourage his men. When the primary communicator fell mortally wounded, Lieutenant Murphy repeatedly attempted to call for assistance for his beleaguered teammates. Realizing the impossibility of communicating in the extreme terrain, and in the face of almost certain death, he fought his way into open terrain to gain a better position to transmit a call. This deliberate, heroic act deprived him of cover, exposing him to direct enemy fire. Finally achieving contact with his headquarters, Lieutenant Murphy maintained his exposed position while he provided his location and requested immediate support for his team. In his final act of bravery, he continued to engage the enemy until he was mortally wounded, gallantly giving his life for his country and for the cause of freedom. By his selfless leadership, Lieutenant Murphy reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. [3] Signed George W. Bush [3] 41

42 Back-up Slides 42

43 43 New tactics? Potential impact of new political & military relationships of post Cold War: –Peacekeeping & peace-making missions (UN controlled?) No way as far as US concerned –Expanded mission not favored by Bush administration (at least until after 9/11/2001) Post 9/11 coalition building tolerated & then later actively pursued (with not much success) –Nation building now actively pursued in Iraq –(Led by US military: build-up Iraqi military) –Aim: get them ready to take over so we can leave ASAP

Download ppt "1 MH-23: Age of Interventions Power Projection. 2 Projecting Power and Maintaining Peace Strategic Overview By 1980s => Major military powers dominated."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google