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Slide 1 Battle in the Balkans Major Carlos Rascon.

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1 Slide 1 Battle in the Balkans Major Carlos Rascon

2 Slide 2 Introduction During the 1980s and early 90s, the fall of Communism in Yugoslavia led to the emergence new governments in the formerly controlled republics. With the struggle for power taking place, many atrocities of war were committed by Slobodan Milosevic in Serbia. On 24 March 1999 the United Nations launched air-strikes to end the war in Serbia.

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives 1. The student will understand the reasons for the downfall of Yugoslavia 2. The student will comprehend the battles of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina 2. The student will comprehend the battles of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina 3. The student will comprehend the reasons for war in Kosovo 4. The student will comprehend the effects of NATO involvement in Kosovo

4 Slide 4 References 1. Brawley, Mark R., Martin, Pierre, Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and Nato’s War: Allied Force or Forced Allies, DiPrizio, Robert C., Armed Humanitarians: U.S. Interventions from Northern Iraq to Kosovo, Donia, Robert J., Fine, John V.A. Jr., Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1994

5 Slide 5 References Cont. 4. Hosmer, Stephen T., Conflict over Kosovo, 2001

6 Slide 6

7 Slide 7 History of Yugoslavia 1. Under Josip Tito, Yugoslavia had strong Communist control 1. Under Josip Tito, Yugoslavia had strong Communist control Republics were established in 1946 Republics were established in After his death in 1980, many of the Republics pushed for independence from Serbian rule 2. After his death in 1980, many of the Republics pushed for independence from Serbian rule 3. Slobodan Milosevic became the President of the Communist Party in Serbia 3. Slobodan Milosevic became the President of the Communist Party in Serbia Milosevic became the President of Serbia Milosevic became the President of Serbia

8 Slide 8 History Cont. In the first meaningful election in 1990, Nationalist representatives won in 5 of the 6 Republics In the first meaningful election in 1990, Nationalist representatives won in 5 of the 6 Republics 1991-Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina declare their independence from Yugoslavia 1991-Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina declare their independence from Yugoslavia All feared living under Serbian rule All feared living under Serbian rule

9 Slide 9

10 Slide 10 War Breaks Out Slobodan Milosevic immediately sent troops to Slovenia Slobodan Milosevic immediately sent troops to Slovenia Slovenia was an industrial area under Yugoslav rule and is well prepared for attack Slovenia was an industrial area under Yugoslav rule and is well prepared for attack Easily repel JNA (Yugoslavia National Army) and Serbian forces Easily repel JNA (Yugoslavia National Army) and Serbian forces Withdrawal in two weeks Withdrawal in two weeks Milosevic then sent JNA and Serbian troops into Croatia Milosevic then sent JNA and Serbian troops into Croatia

11 Slide 11 Slovenia and Croatia By early 1992, Serb forces control 1/3 of Croatia By early 1992, Serb forces control 1/3 of Croatia Cease-fire ends the conflict temporarily Cease-fire ends the conflict temporarily U.N. sends in 14,000 forces to monitor U.N. sends in 14,000 forces to monitor Better equipped Croation military pushed out JNA and Serb forces Better equipped Croation military pushed out JNA and Serb forces

12 Slide 12

13 Slide 13 Bosnia-Herzegovina After declaring independence, they immediately elect a Croat-Muslim Government After declaring independence, they immediately elect a Croat-Muslim Government 44% Muslim 44% Muslim 31% Serb 31% Serb 17% Croat 17% Croat 2. Serbs initiated the attack 2. Serbs initiated the attack Hit vulnerable Muslim and Croat targets Hit vulnerable Muslim and Croat targets

14 Slide 14 Bosnia-Herzegovina Cont. Serbs wanted to take Bosnia to extend Serbian territory Serbs wanted to take Bosnia to extend Serbian territory Serbs were able to take about 70% of Bosnia Serbs were able to take about 70% of Bosnia Early in the war, Croats and Muslims were fighting as allies Early in the war, Croats and Muslims were fighting as allies uneasy alliance uneasy alliance The Croatian fighting forces in Bosnia were being supplied from Croatia The Croatian fighting forces in Bosnia were being supplied from Croatia

15 Slide 15 Bosnia Cont. In 1993, the Bosnian-Croats had turned on their Muslim allies In 1993, the Bosnian-Croats had turned on their Muslim allies Wanted to gain the Herzegovina area for Croatia Wanted to gain the Herzegovina area for Croatia Increased U.S. and U.N. pressure persuaded the Bosnian-Croats to cease fighting with the Muslims and focus on Serbs Increased U.S. and U.N. pressure persuaded the Bosnian-Croats to cease fighting with the Muslims and focus on Serbs Muslims were poorly equipped Muslims were poorly equipped

16 Slide 16 Bosnia Cont. Needed the Bosnian-Croats support to survive Serbian attack Needed the Bosnian-Croats support to survive Serbian attack NATO forces assist Bosnia- Herzegovina forces with air-strikes and re- supplies NATO forces assist Bosnia- Herzegovina forces with air-strikes and re- supplies Serbs are forced to sign the Dayton Peace Accord Serbs are forced to sign the Dayton Peace Accord Calls for NATO troop enforcement Calls for NATO troop enforcement

17 Slide 17 Battle for Kosovo

18 Slide 18 Kosovo Due to violations of the Yugoslavia Constitution in 1946, ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resorted to violence against Serb officials Due to violations of the Yugoslavia Constitution in 1946, ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resorted to violence against Serb officials The Constitution declared Kosovo an autonomous providence of Serbia The Constitution declared Kosovo an autonomous providence of Serbia Albanians were given the right to run internal affairs of Kosovo Albanians were given the right to run internal affairs of Kosovo Albanian population in Kosovo was about 90% Milosevic had abolished Kosovo’s autonomy Albanian population in Kosovo was about 90% Milosevic had abolished Kosovo’s autonomy

19 Slide 19 Kosovo Cont. Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) was formed to try to gain rights for the Albanians Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) was formed to try to gain rights for the Albanians Milosevic had a deep hatred for the Albanians in Kosovo Milosevic had a deep hatred for the Albanians in Kosovo Was elected as President on a promise to fix the “Albanian Problem” in Kosovo Was elected as President on a promise to fix the “Albanian Problem” in Kosovo Wanted stronger political control of Kosovo Wanted stronger political control of Kosovo Wanted to eliminate the Albanian race from Serbia Wanted to eliminate the Albanian race from Serbia

20 Slide 20 Kosovo Cont. In 1998, Milosevic launched a military campaign is Kosovo to end the KLA attacks In 1998, Milosevic launched a military campaign is Kosovo to end the KLA attacks Burned down homes Burned down homes Killed thousands of ethnic Albanians Killed thousands of ethnic Albanians Many Albanians were forced to flee Many Albanians were forced to flee In October 1998, U.N. threatened air-strikes if the violence did not cease In October 1998, U.N. threatened air-strikes if the violence did not cease Milosevic backed down Milosevic backed down

21 Slide 21 Kosovo Cont. January Serb forces massacred 45 civilians in the villiage of Racak January Serb forces massacred 45 civilians in the villiage of Racak March Serbia launches an all out offensive in Kosovo March Serbia launches an all out offensive in Kosovo Was based on the belief of “ethnic cleansing” Was based on the belief of “ethnic cleansing” Wanted to eliminate the ethnic Albanian population from Serbia Wanted to eliminate the ethnic Albanian population from Serbia

22 Slide 22 Kosovo Cont. 24 March 1999 NATO launches Operation “Allied Force” 24 March 1999 NATO launches Operation “Allied Force” Led by U.S. Led by U.S. 11 nations involved 11 nations involved Bombing campaign lasted about 12 weeks Bombing campaign lasted about 12 weeks Destroyed most of the Serbian Infrastructure Destroyed most of the Serbian Infrastructure Serbs responded by murdering more Albanians Serbs responded by murdering more Albanians Video 3min Air War in Serbia Video 3min Air War in Serbia

23 Slide 23 Kosovo Cont. 20 June 1999 the campaign is ended 20 June 1999 the campaign is ended Milosevic gives in to NATO demands Milosevic gives in to NATO demands Makes a 4 phase withdrawal Makes a 4 phase withdrawal NATO peace-keeping forces still remain in the region today NATO peace-keeping forces still remain in the region today

24 Slide 24

25 Slide 25 Aftermath NATO Losses NATO Losses 3 aircraft (including 1 F-117A) 3 aircraft (including 1 F-117A) 2 Apache helicopters 2 Apache helicopters 30 UAV’s 30 UAV’s No published Reports No published Reports Much of the Serb infrastructure was thought to be destroyed based on the declining resistance later in the campaign Much of the Serb infrastructure was thought to be destroyed based on the declining resistance later in the campaign

26 Slide 26 Aftermath Cont. 1 Chinese Embassy 1 Chinese Embassy

27 Slide 27 War Crimes Tribunal 1 April 2001 Serbian police arrested Milosevic 1 April 2001 Serbian police arrested Milosevic 29 June 2001 Serbian officials hand Milosevic over to international authorities 29 June 2001 Serbian officials hand Milosevic over to international authorities Extradited to the Hague to stand trial for war crimes Extradited to the Hague to stand trial for war crimes Trial is still going on today Trial is still going on today

28 Slide 28 Summary History of Yugoslavia History of Yugoslavia Croatia and Slovenia Croatia and Slovenia Bosnia-Herzegovina Bosnia-Herzegovina Kosovo Kosovo Operation “Allied Force” Operation “Allied Force” War Crimes Tribunal War Crimes Tribunal

29 Slide 29 Questions?

30 Slide 30


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